Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Individual morals improvement - Essay Example The way toward testing rules contains its comprehensiveness for example can the guidelines be generally applied to everybody or it regards individuals as closures however not the methods. Each individual has a portion of the sources where the person in question attracts a portion of the essential standards life that shapes the premise of what's up or right conduct. In a few examples, coming up next are a portion of the significant wellsprings of morals. Youth childhood each individual takes in morals from their folks through either words or above all through their activities. I took in a portion of the morals by watching and tuning in and seeing what my folks as I grew up. Beneficial involvement with a later stage throughout everyday life, a portion of the occasions straightforwardly and deliberately shapes the morals of a person. For example, a person who was dealt with unreasonably during a street mishap may in all probability have adverse disposition in life towards individuals who rewarded the person in question unjustifiably. Strict convictions about the vast majority of the religions on the planet show comparable code of morals that underlines on regard for different peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, genuine and magnanimity. In this manner, regardless of whether in business or in business circumstances, strict individuals act in a way that is viewed as being moral A personÃ¢â¬â¢s morals can be shown in the work environment since an individual and the association can both influence each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s activities and conduct. Group pioneers greatly affect their teamÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct and morals. A position of work is a decent spot to learn morals since representatives influence each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s brain science and good conduct. In this manner representatives go about as each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s wellspring of motivation Great morals help a person in getting their workplace. It additionally helps a person to cajole with colleagues both in junior and senior situations in an inviting way. This helps with making favorable workplace accordingly expanding the presentation level. A
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Pre Pre-Bid Joint Venture Agreement Essay Pre-Bid Joint Venture Agreement Essay PRE-BIDDING JOINT VENTURE AGREEMENTbetweenCompany AandCompany Bin regard ofCONSTRUCTION PROJECTTHE PRE-BIDDING JOINT VENTURE AGREEMENTThis Pre Bidding Joint Venture Agreement (Ã¢â¬Å"The AgreementÃ¢â¬ ) went into as of this _________ day of ________________, 20___ (being the real date on which the Agreement will be marked) by and between: (A) Company A with their office at ___________ (hereinafter called Ã¢â¬Å"Party AÃ¢â¬ ) of the one part(B) Company B with their office at _________________ (along with its replacements and appointees hereinafter called Ã¢â¬Å"Party BÃ¢â¬ ), of the other part Both sides will be mutually alluded to as the Ã¢â¬Å"PartiesÃ¢â¬ .WITNESSETH:Whereas the gatherings hereto want to present a joint offer to _____________(hereinafter alluded to as the Owner), for the development of ________________(herein called the Work).WHEREAS, the gatherings each thus affirm and speak to one another their capacity to give their individual portion of holding limit, ac counts, staff, gear and oversight to finish the work in the occasion they are the effective bidder and to continue and pay for any misfortunes that might be incurred;NOW THEREFORE, it is therefore concurred between the gatherings hereto as follows:1. They will mutually set up an offer to be submitted to the Owner for an agreement for the Work.2. The offer will be submitted in the names of the undersigned as joint venturers and should an agreement for said Work be acquired because of such offer, such agreement will be taken in the names of the undersigned, as joint venturers, or in such other name as might be settled upon by the undersigned with the assent and endorsement of the Owner.3. Every single commitment made by any such offer or agreement will be the joint and a few commitment of the undersigned.4. The enthusiasm of the undersigned in any such agreement, whenever got, and in the Work will be
Wednesday, July 29, 2020
Addiction, Dependence, and Tolerance to Pain Medication More in Addiction Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery There is a difference between addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance to pain medication. It is imperative that each of us understands the difference. Many people with chronic pain conditions, including certain types of arthritis, are prescribed pain medication. Their medical condition dictates the need for such drugsâ"thats why it was prescribed as part of their treatment plan. Yet, if you pay attention to the news, people who are legitimately prescribed pain medication are being lumped in with the abusers. We can easily understand how that developed. After all, there is an epidemic of opioid abuse in the U.S. The drugs are said to be overprescribed. Add to that a celebrity dying from a drug overdose and the anti-drug campaigns hit a fever pitch. Each of the aforementioned problems is a legitimate concern. But, so is the disregard for people (e.g., chronic pain patients) who legitimately need pain medication to function and have some quality of life. Their plight cannot be minimized while the urgency of other matters is dealt with. This realization has largely been lost because too many people do not understand the difference between addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance. We cannot blur the lines between these three factors and expect to solve problems related to drug use and abuse. It is the first step we all must takeâ"understanding the terminology. What Is Addiction? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of addiction as it relates to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain: Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving. What Is Physical Dependence? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of physical dependence: Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist. What Is Tolerance? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of tolerance: Tolerance is a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution (i.e., diminishing or lessening) of one or more of the drugs effects over time. That said, most pain medicine and addiction specialists concur that chronic pain patients treated longterm with opioid drugs usually do develop physical dependence. Some patients will develop tolerance. But, usually, this group of patients does not develop an addiction. The actual risk of addiction is considered unknown and not predictable, but it is likely related to several factors, including genetic predisposition. Addiction itself is a primary chronic disease. Exposure to drugs is just one factor in its development. In fact, in most cases, exposure to drugs that can stimulate the brains reward center do not produce addiction. Characteristic Features and Behaviors Impaired control, craving, and compulsive use of the drug, as well as continued use of the drug despite negative physical, mental, or social consequences, are considered characteristic features of addiction. But, it can be a bit more complicated than simply recognizing the presence of those features. The same features could be related to inadequate pain relief. A doctor must be able to exercise their judgment and to discern between addiction and another cause. There are specific behaviors that point to the possibility of addiction. Those behaviors include: Not adhering to the prescribed schedule for the drugTaking more than one dose at a timeRepeated reports of stolen or lost drugsDoctor shopping (getting the drug from more than one doctor)Isolation (wanting time alone)Additionally using non-prescribed psychoactive drugsUsing pain medications for sedation, intoxication, to boost energy, or to lower anxiety levelsRequesting certain formulations or routes of administration of the drugAvoidance of or disinterest in non-opioid treatment options Addiction clearly is associated with potentially serious, even fatal, consequences. On the other hand, physical dependence is considered a normal response by the body to the chronic or continued use of certain medicationsâ"and not only opioid pain medications. For example, physical dependence can occur with corticosteroids, antidepressants, beta-blockers, as well as other medications not considered addictive. If drugs that may be associated with physical dependence are to be discontinued, the drug should be tapered to avoid withdrawal symptoms (e.g., prednisone tapering). Tolerance is even a bit trickier to understand. Tolerance may occur to the desired effect of the drug, but it can also occur to the undesired effects. Tolerance is also variable, occurring at different rates for different effects. Using opioids as an example, tolerance to the analgesic effects occur more slowly than to respiratory depression. Find Relief With the 9 Best Online Therapy Programs The Bottom Line Addiction is mostly a behavioral disorder, although it can overlap with physical dependence. Typically, addiction involves using the drug despite negative consequences, craving the drug even when not in physical pain, and using it for reasons other than the prescribed indication. Physical dependence is evident when someone develops a tolerance to a drug or if one would experience withdrawal symptoms from stopping the drug suddenly. Tolerance is present when the same dose does not garner the same result, thereby requiring higher doses to achieve the desired result. In and of itself, physical dependence does not mean that there is addiction, but it may accompany addiction when there is addiction.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Examining the Impact of Supportive Co-parenting, Father Engagement and Attachment: An Article Analysis La-Mine Perkins NC State University Research has shown that the presence of healthy attachments between parents and children during infancy are a cornerstone of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s future social and emotional well-being (Zastrow 147). Secure levels of attachment are associated with healthy peer relationships, higher self-esteem and overall survival. In Associations among Supportive Co-parenting, Father Engagement and Attachment: The Role of Race/Ethnicity, Pudasainee-Kapri and Razza examine the impact of supportive co-parenting, and father engagement on mother-child attachment. The article was written byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This assessment included the father engagement through telling stories, singing, reading, and other measurable indicators. The research also looked into the parent perception of the child, and the co-parenting relationship. Finally, the researchers controlled for variables, to mitigate suspicious engagement among the father engagement, mother-child attachment, and co-parenting. After con trolling for disqualifying factors the researchers were left with a sample that was slightly skewed due to a larger than normal proportion of married/cohabitating and minority families. It is unclear what the impact to the overrepresentation of some groups may have had on the study. The methodology of surveying only mothers does leave room for criticism of implicit bias. The research found that the was a correlation of co-parenting and race/ethnic interactions as associated with the child-parent association was found. Research findings validate the well-accepted data on the importance of supportive co-parenting during infancy and the many benefits including father engagement and mother-child attachment. The findings did differ from previous research in finding, lower levels of father engagement in minority families. Attachment in minority parent-child relationships was also lower than those of white families. Regardless, the positive link between supportive co-parenting and father engagement crossed racial/ethnic lines. Researchers theorizeShow MoreRelatedAttachment Theory And Emotional Development1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand of othersÃ¢â¬ (p. 133). Attachment theory plays a large role in cognitive and emotional development because it sets a foundation for the child. A case study of Angela, a 17-year-old mother, and her 11 month-old son, wi ll dive into the attachment relationship between the two and extenuating circumstances surrounding that attachment. Angela is attempting to raise her son under the roof of her mother; who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t support a paternal relationship for Adam. AngelaÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment relationship with her sonRead MoreResearch Proposal on How to Balance Work and Personal Life4847 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagessingle parents being the focus of research investigation.Ã Ã The motivation behind for the study lies that it is crucial and of importance because for the people and the society as well to get involve as to why there is a need for balance work life engagement through human resource control and that the study can provide implications for the organizations role as well as managers role in achieving the balance act for life and work among employees and that single parents are one in the group. Ã TheRead MoreChildcare: Education and Subject Code Essay43120 Words Ã |Ã 173 PagesSpecialist Support for Teaching and Learning Subject Code: 501/1719/1 ASCENTISÃ¢â¬â¢ MISSION STATEMENT Ã¢â¬ËBuilding Partnerships to Advance and Accredit Lifelong Learning for All.Ã¢â¬â¢ About Ascentis Ascentis was originally established in 1975 as OCNW a co-operative scheme between Universities and Colleges of Further Education. OCNW was the first Ã¢â¬Å¾Open CollegeÃ¢â¬Å¸ in the UK and served the needs of its members for over 34 years. Throughout this period, OCNW grew yet maintained its independence in order thatRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesComponents of Attitudes? 70 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? 71 Ã¢â¬ ¢ What Are the Major Job Attitudes? 73 Job Satisfaction 78 Measuring Job Satisfaction 79 Ã¢â¬ ¢ How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 80 Ã¢â¬ ¢ What Causes Job Satisfaction? 81 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace 82 Summary and Implications for Managers 88 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Satisfied Am I with My Job? 70 CONTENTS ix S A L An Ethical Choice Do Employers Owe WorkersRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 PagesUniversity and a former merchant banker, Palumbo was an unlikely entrant into a dance culture that was still raw and far from respectable. He actually preferred classical music. The clubÃ¢â¬â¢s name, the Ministry of Sound, ironically recalled PalumboÃ¢â¬â¢s father, a former Minister in the Conservative government of the day. Yet within just 10 years, Palumbo built the Ministry of Sound into a music and media empire worth nearly Ã £150m. Two years later, Palumbo had quit as chief executive and the Ministry of
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Life After Essay on General Topics Knowing the most usual IELTS essay topics enables you to center on the main vocabulary. Some examinations incorporate an essay writing. The thesis will provide you with a guideline on the best way to go about with writing the essay. You see, the conventions of English essays are somewhat more formulaic than you may think and, in a lot of ways, it can be as easy as counting to five. Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. Colleges can tell whenever your essay is merely a form essay. When you wish to create an amazing cause and effect essay for college, obtaining an engaging topic you should know that you could have fun too! Very often it becomes hard to choose one particular topic either on account of the many ideas in the student's head, or due to their complete absence. When you're picking your topic, bear in mind that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. The topics you'll find are supposed to secure you to select a side, and argue that side with supportive evidence. The Basic Facts of Essay on General Topics The most significant thing is that you justify whatever you say in your essay. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you will be certain to find something debatable of what you see. There are a few unique means by which you might structure an essay like, but the simplest one could possibly be the very best. Your reply shouldn't be a book report. The Essay on General Topics Stories Planning is critical in any sort of home task, from creating a powerpoint presentation to supplying American Government homework help to your friend. Leaders are made by the demands that are put on them. Selecting a topic is a critical issue that partly estimates final success of the job. Colleges are seeking a feeling of maturity and introspectionpinpoint the transformation and demonstrate your private growth. Gossip, Deception and Essay on General Topics Before submitting your assignment, you want to be certain that it's flawless and error-free. The very first step is where a large number of students become stuck. On our site you'll find a great deal more useful exception al information that is certain to be practical for junior and higher school kids from, like common home task essay about Hamlet, along with, for instance, application essays for college for future students. For instance, you can select a topic for elementary, middle, or higher school. It is possible to also restate the ideas which you have discussed in the body paragraphs in order to make your point valid. Your thesis needs to be relevant so the write-up can use a structure that's flexible in order to fit in the shoes of the readers. So far as essay structure goes, a 4 or 5 paragraph essay based on the number of points you may want to argue is a superb start. Even the most well-known examples need context. In a scientific essay, project or report you are going to be expected to demonstrate which you are mindful of the appropriate research on the subject and a literature review will form an. Remember your final grade significantly is dependent upon the topic. You could be gi ven the topic straight away by your professor, or you could be free to opt for the topic yourself. Following are a few of the advised sociology essay topic for those students that are unable to decide on a great topic for their assignment. Try out another topic and do the identical 5-minute writing test till you locate a topic you know you can readily write on. The topic has to be interesting, the topic has to be essential and finally the topic has to be informative. Each topic is broken into subtopics that you should prepare. If you're genuinely interested in a topic then it is a lot simpler to study and you are not as likely to stop. New Step by Step Roadmap for Essay on General Topics As any other essay, philosophy work has its features and peculiarities that have to be taken into consideration when you need to acquire the top-notch excellent work. Even if you're a specialist in a particular field, don't be afraid to use and cite external sources. If you are searching for assistance with your essay then we provide a comprehensive writing service offered by fully qualified academics in your area of study. Critical judgment of work in any certain field has little value unless it comes from somebody who is a spe cialist in that area.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This article was downloaded by: [113. 210. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Sustainable Tourism Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now 106] On: 22 March 2013, At: 07:28 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Journal of Sustainable Tourism Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www. tandfonline. com/loi/rsus20 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Jackie Clarke Version of record first published: 29 Mar 2010. To cite this article: Jackie Clarke (1997): A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5:3, 224-233 To link to this article: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1080/09669589708667287 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www. tandfonline. com/page/ terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Jackie Clarke School of Business, Oxford Brooks University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford OX33 1HX Based on an extensive literature review, this paper proposes a framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. The framework is composed of four positions, chronologically sequenced according to the dominant understanding of sustainable tourism as a possession or goal. The positions are those of polar opposites, continuum, movement and convergence. The framework offers insights into the development of the sustainable tourism concept and enables identification of an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the concept. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Introduction The understanding of sustainable tourism has developed from the early Ã¢â¬Ëis it or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ debate, to the acceptance that research energy should be channelled into practical ways of assisting all forms of tourism to move towards sustainability. The fundamental difference is the assumption of the former, that sustainable tourism is, in some manner, already a possession of certain types of tourism or situation, against the acknowledgement of the latter, that sustainable tourism is not an inherent characteristic of any existing form or situation, but a goal that all tourism must strive to achieve. The tremendous volume of output on the subject over the last decade (Brown, 1991) has contributed to the recognised ambiguity in terminology (Beioley, 1995; De Kadt, 1990; Lanfant Graburn, 1992; Murphy, 1994; Pearce, 1992, etc. ) and the surfeit of labels. For example, ecotourism has no unequivocal usage. It has been expressed as a symbiotic relationship between tourism and nature conservation (Farrell Runyan, 1991; Valentine, 1993), been equated with nature tourism (Boo, 1990), and constructed as a Venn diagram (Buckley, 1993; Wight, 1995). Occasionally, labels are combined to produce hybrids (see, for example, Dernoi, 1988; Wight,l995). As a concept, sustainable tourism is still evolving. A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Based on a critical literature review of both academic and industry contributions, the proposed framework comprises four positions of understanding of sustainable tourism. These four positions: Ã · are broadly chronological, reflecting the dominant approach to sustainable tourism and offering insights into the conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s development; Ã · provide a structure within which an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the concept may be identified, affording insights for literature reviews. The framework is envisaged as complementary to other work (see, for example, Cazes, 1989; Pearce, 1992). As early literature commonly fixed on scale as the distinguishing feature, this is the unifying theme for the framework. As a 0966-9582/97/03 0224-10 $10. 00/0 JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Ã ©1997 J. Clarke Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997 224 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 225 criterion, scale has shifted from an emotive or even antagonistic role to neutral ground. An overview of the framework shows the positions forming two pairs. The first pair regard sustainable tourism as a current possession of a particular scale of tourism, whilst the second pair treat the phenomenon as a goal to be striven for. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 The first position of polar opposites A term adapted from Pearce (1992), the first, and probably the earliest of the four positions, was that of mass tourism and sustainable tourism conceived as polar opposites (see Figure 1). Alternative tourism was the popular label for sustainable tourism, mutual exclusion being implicit in the term. As a force, sustainable tourism was understood to be pulling away from mass tourism, which served as a point of repulsion (for commentary, see Butler, 1991; Cazes, 1989; Krippendorf, 1987; Nash, 1992; Richter, 1987; Travis, 1988; Valentine, 1993). Thus, sustainable tourism and mass tourism were stereotyped as the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢. The negative social and environmental impacts experienced at destinations were attributed solely to mass tourism, which was couched in emotive terms such s Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËghettoÃ¢â¬â¢, or Ã¢â¬ËdestructiveÃ¢â¬â¢ tourism. Of course, mass tourism also related to scale, and the scale of the tourism involved was the principal defining characteristic for the polar opposite approach. Wheeller (199la) summarised scale as the focal point: the traveller is preferred to the tourist, the individual to the group, specialist operators rather than the large firms, indigenous accommodation to multi-national hotel chains, sma ll not large Ã¢â¬â essentially good versus bad. Wheeller, l991a, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) Representing mass tourism, a Director of the Thomson Travel Group lampooned the approach by recounting his situation as an ecotourism speaker at a Royal Geographical Society gathering as being: rather like a cattle baron addressing a congress of vegetarians. (Brackenbury, 1992: l0) At its most extreme, advocates of alternative tourism pressed for a total replacement of mass tourism (cited in De Kadt, l990, 1992; Lanfant Graburn, 1992) and of CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1972) institutionalised tourist. Arguably, the position of polar opposites was strengthened by the presentation of mass versus sustainable characteristics in diametrically opposed tables (see, for example, Krippendorf, 1982; WTO, 1989). Such tables were developed into concrete notions of Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ versus Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ (see Lane, 1989, 1990). Ã¢â¬ËMass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Conceptual barrier Ã¢â¬ËSustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Figure 1 Position 1: polar opposites 226 Journal of Sustainable Tourism Thus the earliest understanding of sustainable tourism was one of a dichotomised position. Believers in the polar opposite approach clearly regarded sustainable tourism as a possession of an existing type of tourism based on small scale characteristics. Ownership was claimed by tourism forms opposed to mass tourism. In short, small was synonymous with sustainable. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 The second position of a continuum By the 1990s, the original position of polar opposites was generally rejected as unproductive, but the notion of a continuum between sustainable tourism and mass tourism presented a flexible adaptation of the earlier ideas (see Figure 2). In recognition that sustainable tourism utilised the infrastructure, transport and reservation systems of mass tourism (see De Kadt, 1990, 1992; Krippendorf, 1987; Wheeller, l991a), spawned an accompanying tourism industry structure (see Cohen, 1987, 1989; Krippendorf, 1987), and had the potential to develop into mass tourism if not properly managed (Butler, 1990, 1992; Tourism Concern, 1992), the simplicity of polar opposites was adjusted to a continuum between the two extremes. Variations were appropriately placed along the spectrum (see, for example, Davidson, 1992). Although allowing some measure of degree, the continuum understanding of sustainable tourism still regarded the phenomenon as a possession and used scale as the defining criterion. Polar opposites and continuum therefore formed a natural pair. However, the continuum approach to sustainable tourism was only ever loosely established; understanding was moving in a new direction. Ã¢â¬ËMass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËSustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Figure 2 Position 2: continuum Criticisms: too simple, too impractical Criticisms and queries have been voiced over these early approaches to sustainable tourism. The idea of polar opposites representing Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢ was denounced as Ã¢â¬Ëgrossly misleadingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Butler, 1990). Most criticisms related to one or both of the following: Ã · Too simple: the inadequate appreciation of tourism as a dynamic and complex phenomenon resulting in the inherent flaws in this understanding of sustainable tourism. Ã · Too impractical: the question of scale and the inability of this narrow view of sustainable tourism to offer practical solutions to the global problem of the burgeoning volume of tourist arrivals. Tourism is a complex and dynamic phenomenon (Heath Wall, 1992; Przeclawski, 1993), yet sustainable tourism from the polar opposite and continuum positions assumed a homogeneity and simplicity in conflict with reality (Cooper et al. , 1993). Faced with the dramatic growth in international tourism from the 25 million trips of 1950 (WTO, 1993) to the 531 million of 1994 (WTO, 1995a) and its continued predicted growth (WTO, l995b), the replacement of mass tourism with the sustainable tourism promoted by the two positions was illogical. Being small scale, sustainable tourism lacked the capability (Butler, A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 227 Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 1990; Cohen, 1987; Cooper et al. , 1993; Fennell Smale, 1992; Pearce, 1992). Sustainable tourism could neither manage the number of arrivals nor replace the economic benefits accrued (Butler, 1992; Cohen, 1987). For Wheeller (1990, l991a, l991b), the idea was a Ã¢â¬Ëmicro solutionÃ¢â¬â¢ struggling with a Ã¢â¬Ëmacro problemÃ¢â¬â¢. Furthermore, this understanding was inward-looking, failing to recognise the importance of other industry sectors and the wider perspective of sustainable development (Hunter, 1995). Indeed, the second pair of positions better demonstrate the influence of the sustainable development landmarks that shaped the concept (for example, IUCN, 1980, 1991; The World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987; the GLOBE Ã¢â¬â¢90 and Ã¢â¬â¢92 conferences; The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development with Agenda 21). Other criticisms concerned issues such as elitism (Cazes, 1989; Richter, 1987), the problems of ensuring local ownership and control (Cater, 1992), and inbalances in power (Wheeller, 1990, l991a, l991b). Butler (1990) argued that the approach to sustainable tourism portrayed a static picture of impacts. The revision of features related to time and process produced a less flattering scenario (Butler, 1990). For example, the more intense contact between host and guest over a longer duration resulted in greater damage to the fragile host culture than was readily apparent in the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ versus Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ tables. The emergence of these tables was partly a response to an over-simplistic interpretation of KrippendorfÃ¢â¬â¢s work (1982, 1987). Krippendorf (1987) was not opposed to mass tourism as long as it progressed towards Ã¢â¬ËharmoniousÃ¢â¬â¢ tourism. In fact, he urged that: only if we succeed in living with tourism as a mass phenomenon, ? , can we claim to have made a decisive step forward, (Krippendorf, 1982: 111, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) an assertion often overlooked by proponents of a polar opposite or continuum approach. The third position of movement Criticisms of the earlier understandings of sustainable tourism, coupled with a closer alignment to sustainable development, resulted in the demand to change mass tourism to more sustainable forms (see, for example, Bramwell, 1991; Butler, 1990, 1991; Cohen, 1987; De Kadt, 1990; GLOBE, 1990; EIU, 1992). If the main problem of modern tourism is that of its huge number, (Krippendorf, 1987: 42, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) then mass tourism was the most visible and sensible candidate for initial reform. The sustainable tourism as understood under movement differed from the earlier definitions of sustainable tourism on three key dimensions: Ã · The issue of scale became more objective and less emotive. Mass tourism became the subject for improvement, rather than the derided villain. Ã · Sustainable tourism became the goal for attainment, rather than the possession of an existing scale of tourism. Operationalising current knowledge to move towards the goal became the 228 Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Ã¢â¬â¢mass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢) Large scale tourism Sustainable Tourism Goal Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Figure 3 Position 3: movement practical focus of effort, rather than the Ã¢â¬Ëis it or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ debate of previous years. F igure 3 illustrates the understanding of sustainable tourism by movement advocates. As a label, large scale tourism is preferred to mass tourism, for it sheds the negative connotations. Viewed objectively, large scale tourism possesses strengths which could be used to advantage: Ã · The environment is attacked by other industries, such as mining and manufacturing (EIU, 1992; McKercher, 1993), and tourism is dependent on environmental quality. The tourism industry must protect its assets; size is important, as large players exert pressure through lobbying power. Ã · Large scale operators have the marketing and communication skills, plus contact opportunities in bulk, to actively foster interest in sustainable tourism amongst the millions of consumers who purchase their products. Large size confers influence over suppliers and distributors, which could be used as a persuasive force for the introduction of sustainable policies along the supply chain. Of course, there are less altruistic reasons for large scale tourism to instigate movement towards the sustainable tourism goal. The imposition of environmental regulatory control by governments grappling with world prob lems of acid rain, ozone layer depletion and global warming require a minimum response of compliance. From the demand side, the rise of consumer interest in green issues (see ETB, 1992a, 1992b; Green, 1990) provides the classic incentive of consumer needs. The interest expressed by consumers through financial institutions in environmental practices is a further motive. There are over thirty an ag em en im ts pa ct ys -e as nv ses tem iro nm s s Ã¢â¬â re ent men use t al Guid , re au eline cyc di s for le, red t susta uce inab le to urism Equity Company/organisation focus ta lm s pac im cts al pa lob G im al sic y ph al/ gic olo Ec (Ã¢â¬â¢sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢) Small scale tourism iro nm en En v -e nv iro nm e nt al A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 229 Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 environmental or ethical funds in the United Kingdom, representing approximately ? 750 million of investment; according to independent financial advisors Holden Meehan (1994), the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëprofit with principleÃ¢â¬â¢ has moved from the fringe to t he mainstream. Investors are stakeholders requiring satisfaction. There are many examples of large scale tourism proactively moving towards the goal of sustainable tourism (see Middleton Hawkins, 1993, 1994; WTTERC, 1991Ã¢â¬â1994). British Airways was one of the first tourism companies to publish an environmental report (British Airways, 1991), the International Hotels Environment Initiative was a sector-specific project (Van Praag, 1992), whilst the Ã¢â¬ËGreen GlobeÃ¢â¬â¢ programme was targeted across the tourism sectors (WTTERC, 1994). The World Travel Tourism Council, a coalition of Chief Executive Officers from international tourism companies, established the World Travel Tourism Environment Research Centre (WTTERC) to monitor, assess and communicate objectives, strategies and action programmes in respect of environmental management (WTTERC, 1992). Over one hundred guidelines and codes of practice relating to tourism were identified (WTTERC, 1993); the environmental guidelines of the WTTERC itself provide a useful synopsis of the large scale understanding of sustainable tourism (WTTERC, 1992). As Figure 3 demonstrates, the focus of this approach is on the physical/ecological environment, with an emphasis on environmental management systems, incorporating techniques such as environmental audits of products, processes and issues, and environmental impact assessments. The fourth position of convergence The framework culminates in a position of convergence (see Figure 4). This position represents the latest understanding of sustainable tourism as a goal that all tourism, regardless of scale, must strive to achieve (see, for example, Inskeep, 1991). Accepting that the concept of sustainable tourism is still evolving, the absence of a precise goal definition is less important than general movement in the correct direction. Appreciating the wider role of sustainable development, this final position recognises two interpretations of sustainable tourism. The large scale interpretation of sustainable tourism (as portrayed in position three) has a dominantly physical/ecological perspective expressed as a business orientation. The small scale interpretation of sustainable tourism offers a social slant from a local or destination platform. It is akin to the understanding of sustainable tourism as alternative tourism under position one, except for the crucial recognition of the concept as a goal rather than a possession. Both interpretations: Ã · focus on the implementation of their current knowledge of sustainable tourism to move towards the ultimate goal of sustainability; Ã · seek future progress towards the desired goal through the twin processes of further development of ideas inherent in their own interpretation and by adaptation of ideas found in the other. Together, this results in convergence towards the goal of sustainable tourism. For example, in this quest, large scale tourism is experimenting with techniques for inducing shifts in tourist behaviour compatible with environmentallyfriendly travel, an educational component instigated by the small scale enterprises. Thomsons now provide environmental guidelines for guests; TUI 230 Journal of Sustainable Tourism Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Large scale tourism al nm vi ro En Figure 4 Position 4: convergence ave produced an environment ranking for products featured in all their mainstream Euro-brochures. In turn, small scale enterprises are learning about the development of effective environmental management systems, originally the territory of large scale organisations. In the UK, the environmental audit was promoted for small scale concerns by the West Country Tourist BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) Ã¢â¬ËGreen Audit KitÃ¢â¬â¢; the project was then taken nationwide . In addition, by embracing sustainable development, both interpretations are receptive to further ideas generated from outside the tourism sector. Like large scale tourism (see position three), the small scale interpretation of sustainable tourism has produced guidelines and codes of good practice (see, for example, ETB, 1991; Countryside Commission, 1991; Green, 1990), established destination-based projects (for example, the Devon-based Tarka Project) and offered and disseminated advice to interested parties (ETB, 1992a, 1992b, 1993). -e nv iro nm en ta l en t im g olo Ec m an ag em y ph al/ ic al sic en ts pa ct ys -e as nv s e s te m ir o nm sm s Ã¢â¬â re en use tal ent Guid , re au eline cyc s for le, r dit sust edu aina ce ble t ouri sm Equity Company/organisation focus ba Gl p l im s act p im Sustainable Tourism Goal ts ac Local area identity focus Equity Guid e Loc lines for al c sust ont aina Ed rol ble t uc ouri ati To sm on u of Au ris hos tc th t/to e n ha r uri tic act st ity eri s ti cs s act ts mp pac y al i rit ultur l im a c teg loc In o cial/ tion/ a S stin De Small scale tourism A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 231 The completed framework Taken as a whole, the framework both structures and partially explains some of the conflicts and debates that have occurred in sustainable tourism. 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World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example Paper World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Introduction In August 1939 the world was surprised by the announcement of a nonaggression pact and trade agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. This move, uniting two apparent enemies, gave Hitler the freedom to annex more territory in the east without fear of Soviet intervention. Secret clauses in the agreement divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence and provided for the division of Poland between the two countries (Taylor 2005). Poland, aware of the significance of the German-Soviet pact, prepared to defend itself, and remained Britain and France of their promises to help it resist aggression. With Hitler becoming increasingly belligerent and tensions mounting, Europe braces itself for war. Despite the nonaggression pact with Hitler, Stalin remained wary of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s military power and sought to secure the Baltic flank of the Soviet Union. In September and October, 1939, the tiny countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were pressured by the Soviet Union into signing treaties that allowed Soviet troops to be stationed in their territories. The Soviet Union annexed those nations in 1940. On October 7, 1939, the Soviet demanded that Finland gave up land near Leningrad on the Karelian Isthmus (Taylor 2005), and grants the Soviets use of the Hango (or Hanko) naval base, and negotiations ended on November 30 when the Soviet invaded Finland. World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Body Paragraphs Thesis Statement: The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the World War II between Russia and Germany. II. Discussion A. Russian Campaign, 1941 Hitler considered the conquest of the Soviet Union to be a critical part of his plan to create a German empire. The great agricultural areas of the Soviet Union would provide room for German colonists, Russian mineral resources would be exploited for German industry, and Russian labor would be used in German factories (Remak 2006). The Soviet Union was also, in HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, an ideological enemy: Communism could never coexist with Nazism. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion plan was called Barbarossa, after the nickname of the 12th-ceentury Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. The plan called for launching three main thrusts into the Soviet Union, with immediate goals of taking Leningrad in the north, Moscow in the center, and Kiev and the Ukraine in the south. Hitler hoped that his troops could encircle large pockets of Soviet troops (Graff 2006) , as well as capture the main Soviet industrial and agricultural regions, and thus cause resistance to collapse before winter. The plan originally called for the attack to begin in May, 1941, but it was delayed until June by the need to secure the Balkans and Greece on GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s southern flank. This delay may have doomed the planÃ¢â¬âhad the Germans attacked according to the original schedule, they might have had the time to reach their objectives before the offensive was stalled by the severe Russian winter of 1941-42 (Michel 2004). On June 22, 1941, the massive blitzkrieg began. The Germans, led by Field Marshal Wilhelm von Leeb in the north, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock in the center, and Field Marshal Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt in the south, attacked with some 3,000,000 men and 19 panzer divisions. Actual tank strengthÃ¢â¬âabout 2,400Ã¢â¬âwas approximately the same as that of the 10 panzer divisions used against France in 1940 (Liddell Hart 2001). Simultaneou sly with the German attack, the Finnish army struck near Leningrad, and the Romanian army crossed into the Ukraine and drove toward Odessa. B. Russian Campaign, 1942 Russian Winter Offensive. The SovietsÃ¢â¬â¢ success in stopping the Germans before Moscow encouraged them to stay on the offensive in early 1942. The Germans were ill equipped for cold weather, and the forward lines were so far from Germany that supplying the troops became increasingly difficult. The Soviets attacked to the north and south of Moscow, hoping to encircle and isolate the German army that faced the city (Dupuy 2003). The Soviet met with unexpected success and retook much ground, but suffered such heavy losses were also heavy, in part because Hitler refused to allow his troops to fall back to defensible positions. An offensive was also begun from the besieged city of Leningrad, but the Soviets made little progress there. The Russian offensive ended in late February, and both sides made plans for spring ope rations (Sulzberger 2000). German Spring Offensive. The German campaign opened in May. The main effort was made in the Caucasus, with the capture of its oil fields as a major objective. Sevastopol, in the Crimea, fell on July 1, after a long siege. A major attack that was opened on June 28 soon was extended along a 200-mile (320-km) front between the Don and Donets rivers. After reaching the vicinity of Voronezh, the armies turned south. Maikop, deep in the Caucasus, was reached on August 9. The Germans had outrun their supplies, however, and made little further progress (Remak 2006). C. Russian Campaign, 1943-44 German Retreat from the Caucasus. The surrender of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad on February 2, 1943, left HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s forces in the Caucasus in a perilous situation. Field Marshal General Paul Ludwig Kleist conducted a successful retreat while Field Marshal Erich von Mannstein held a corridor open for him at Roslov. The Russians then launched an offensive from Vo ronezh toward the Ukraine, and captured Kursk on February 14 and Kharkov on February 16 (Michel 2004). However, efforts to continue the advance into the Ukraine were repulsed by German counterattacks, and the Germans recaptured Kharkov on March 14. Battle of Kursk. The Battle of Kursk was the culmination of what was to be the last great German offensive against the Soviet Union. The German plan was to attack the north side of the Soviet salient around Kursk with Field Marshal Gunther von KlugeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ninth Army, and simultaneously push against the southern side of the salient with the Fourth Panzer Army, led by Mannstein. These two armies would then link up and destroy the trapped Soviets (Graff 2006). German delays gave the Soviets time to prepare powerful defenses within the salient and to being in more troops and equipment. The Soviet plan was to allow the Germans to batter themselves against the Soviet defenses until exhausted, and then strike back. The two sides committed a t otal of 6,000 tanks, 4,000 aircraft, and 2,000,000 men (Liddell Hart 2001). The German attack began on July 5. Gains were small and costly, as the Soviet defenses were well prepared and the Soviets possessed air superiority. The German troops in the north advanced only about six miles (10 km) before they were stopped; those in the south gained only 20 miles (32 km) in an entire week of hard fighting. The Battle of Kursk was the largest tank battle of the war, with as many as 3,000 tanks engaged at once. The German lost some 2,000 tanks in the course of the battle, a blow from which the once dreaded panzer armies never completely recovered (Liddell Hart 2001). The SovietsÃ¢â¬â¢ losses were nearly as high, but their tank production was sufficient to compensate for the losses. Russian Offensive. On July 12, the Soviets struck back, attacking the German salient around Orel, but Soviet troops struck in the south, advancing against Belgorod. Belgorod was taken on August 5, the same day that Orel was liberated. Kharkov was retaken for the lat time on August 23. It had changed hands four times and was in ruins. By September, Soviet armies under General Ivan S. Konev, Rodion Y. Malinovsky, and Fedor I. Tolbukhin were attacking all along the Dnieper River. On November 6, after heavy fighting t Dnepropetrovsk and Melitopol, the Germans were pushed back across the river. Kiev, capital of the Ukraine, was also recaptured on November 6. On the central front the Germans were driven out of Smonlensk on September 25, but the Russian drive could not be sustained, grinding to a halt some 100 miles (160 km) east of Minsk (Sulzberger 2000). On January 15, 1944, the Soviets launched a major offensive in the north. Soviet troops struck south in two prongs from besieged Leningrad, and at the same time attacked near Novgorod. The Soviet advance continued steadily and German casualties were high. By early March, the German armies had been forced back to Estonia and Latvia. On March 4 , 1944, a new Soviet offensive opened in the Ukraine. A series of thrusts soon left the Germans with only an uncertain foothold in the Soviet Union. KonevÃ¢â¬â¢s army reached the Romanian frontier before the end of the month, and ZhukovÃ¢â¬â¢s troops were at the border of Czechoslovakia on April 8. After the fall of Odessa two days later the Germans had little hope of holding any part of the Ukraine (Remak 2006). A Soviet drive into the Crimea resulted in the liberation of Sevastopol on May 9. D. Final Russian Campaign, 1944-45 The Soviet Union opened its summer campaign of 1944 on June 9 with an attack on Finland. The Mannerheim Line was broken on June 18 and Viipuri was captured. Finland signed an armistice on September 4. On the other hand, Hitler was convinced that the next great Soviet offensive would be in the south part of the Eastern Front, with goal of seizing the Balkan states and their important resources. Accordingly, he moved much of his strength away from the cente r of the front in Byelo-russia and put it in the south. The Soviets, however, were planning an attack in the center (Remak 2006). III. Conclusion As a conclusion, as the war drew to a close, the nations of the word were eager to find a means of attaining permanent peace. In 1945, the United Nations was established and its charter was signed by 51 countries. However, threats to the friendly settlement of postwar problems appeared even before the charter was signed. The Soviet Union, for example, had antagonized the United States and Great Britain by annexing the Baltic states. And by making extreme reparations demands upon Germany, Hungary, and Poland. After the war, the Soviets disagreed with the other Allies about the application of the agreements they had reached concerning the status of conquered and occupied territories. Although they had promised to allow self-determination for the people of the territories they had occupied, the Soviets brought most of the Balkan nations under Communist rule. They also supported rebels in Greece, turkey, and Iran, aided the Communist uprising in China, and closed off Eastern EuropeÃ¢â¬âincluding the Soviet occupation zone of GermanyÃ¢â¬â to the outside world. These actions led to a prolonged period of tension called the Ã¢â¬Å"cold warÃ¢â¬â¢ between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. Soviet-dominated Europe, said Winston Churchill, was separated from the rest of the world by an Ã¢â¬Å"iron curtain.Ã¢â¬ We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer