Friday, May 22, 2020
Examining the Impact of Supportive Co-parenting, Father Engagement and Attachment: An Article Analysis La-Mine Perkins NC State University Research has shown that the presence of healthy attachments between parents and children during infancy are a cornerstone of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s future social and emotional well-being (Zastrow 147). Secure levels of attachment are associated with healthy peer relationships, higher self-esteem and overall survival. In Associations among Supportive Co-parenting, Father Engagement and Attachment: The Role of Race/Ethnicity, Pudasainee-Kapri and Razza examine the impact of supportive co-parenting, and father engagement on mother-child attachment. The article was written byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This assessment included the father engagement through telling stories, singing, reading, and other measurable indicators. The research also looked into the parent perception of the child, and the co-parenting relationship. Finally, the researchers controlled for variables, to mitigate suspicious engagement among the father engagement, mother-child attachment, and co-parenting. After con trolling for disqualifying factors the researchers were left with a sample that was slightly skewed due to a larger than normal proportion of married/cohabitating and minority families. It is unclear what the impact to the overrepresentation of some groups may have had on the study. The methodology of surveying only mothers does leave room for criticism of implicit bias. The research found that the was a correlation of co-parenting and race/ethnic interactions as associated with the child-parent association was found. Research findings validate the well-accepted data on the importance of supportive co-parenting during infancy and the many benefits including father engagement and mother-child attachment. The findings did differ from previous research in finding, lower levels of father engagement in minority families. Attachment in minority parent-child relationships was also lower than those of white families. Regardless, the positive link between supportive co-parenting and father engagement crossed racial/ethnic lines. Researchers theorizeShow MoreRelatedAttachment Theory And Emotional Development1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand of othersÃ¢â¬ (p. 133). Attachment theory plays a large role in cognitive and emotional development because it sets a foundation for the child. A case study of Angela, a 17-year-old mother, and her 11 month-old son, wi ll dive into the attachment relationship between the two and extenuating circumstances surrounding that attachment. Angela is attempting to raise her son under the roof of her mother; who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t support a paternal relationship for Adam. AngelaÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment relationship with her sonRead MoreResearch Proposal on How to Balance Work and Personal Life4847 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagessingle parents being the focus of research investigation.Ã Ã The motivation behind for the study lies that it is crucial and of importance because for the people and the society as well to get involve as to why there is a need for balance work life engagement through human resource control and that the study can provide implications for the organizations role as well as managers role in achieving the balance act for life and work among employees and that single parents are one in the group. Ã TheRead MoreChildcare: Education and Subject Code Essay43120 Words Ã |Ã 173 PagesSpecialist Support for Teaching and Learning Subject Code: 501/1719/1 ASCENTISÃ¢â¬â¢ MISSION STATEMENT Ã¢â¬ËBuilding Partnerships to Advance and Accredit Lifelong Learning for All.Ã¢â¬â¢ About Ascentis Ascentis was originally established in 1975 as OCNW a co-operative scheme between Universities and Colleges of Further Education. OCNW was the first Ã¢â¬Å¾Open CollegeÃ¢â¬Å¸ in the UK and served the needs of its members for over 34 years. Throughout this period, OCNW grew yet maintained its independence in order thatRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesComponents of Attitudes? 70 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? 71 Ã¢â¬ ¢ What Are the Major Job Attitudes? 73 Job Satisfaction 78 Measuring Job Satisfaction 79 Ã¢â¬ ¢ How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 80 Ã¢â¬ ¢ What Causes Job Satisfaction? 81 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace 82 Summary and Implications for Managers 88 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Satisfied Am I with My Job? 70 CONTENTS ix S A L An Ethical Choice Do Employers Owe WorkersRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 PagesUniversity and a former merchant banker, Palumbo was an unlikely entrant into a dance culture that was still raw and far from respectable. He actually preferred classical music. The clubÃ¢â¬â¢s name, the Ministry of Sound, ironically recalled PalumboÃ¢â¬â¢s father, a former Minister in the Conservative government of the day. Yet within just 10 years, Palumbo built the Ministry of Sound into a music and media empire worth nearly Ã £150m. Two years later, Palumbo had quit as chief executive and the Ministry of
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Life After Essay on General Topics Knowing the most usual IELTS essay topics enables you to center on the main vocabulary. Some examinations incorporate an essay writing. The thesis will provide you with a guideline on the best way to go about with writing the essay. You see, the conventions of English essays are somewhat more formulaic than you may think and, in a lot of ways, it can be as easy as counting to five. Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. Colleges can tell whenever your essay is merely a form essay. When you wish to create an amazing cause and effect essay for college, obtaining an engaging topic you should know that you could have fun too! Very often it becomes hard to choose one particular topic either on account of the many ideas in the student's head, or due to their complete absence. When you're picking your topic, bear in mind that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. The topics you'll find are supposed to secure you to select a side, and argue that side with supportive evidence. The Basic Facts of Essay on General Topics The most significant thing is that you justify whatever you say in your essay. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you will be certain to find something debatable of what you see. There are a few unique means by which you might structure an essay like, but the simplest one could possibly be the very best. Your reply shouldn't be a book report. The Essay on General Topics Stories Planning is critical in any sort of home task, from creating a powerpoint presentation to supplying American Government homework help to your friend. Leaders are made by the demands that are put on them. Selecting a topic is a critical issue that partly estimates final success of the job. Colleges are seeking a feeling of maturity and introspectionpinpoint the transformation and demonstrate your private growth. Gossip, Deception and Essay on General Topics Before submitting your assignment, you want to be certain that it's flawless and error-free. The very first step is where a large number of students become stuck. On our site you'll find a great deal more useful exception al information that is certain to be practical for junior and higher school kids from, like common home task essay about Hamlet, along with, for instance, application essays for college for future students. For instance, you can select a topic for elementary, middle, or higher school. It is possible to also restate the ideas which you have discussed in the body paragraphs in order to make your point valid. Your thesis needs to be relevant so the write-up can use a structure that's flexible in order to fit in the shoes of the readers. So far as essay structure goes, a 4 or 5 paragraph essay based on the number of points you may want to argue is a superb start. Even the most well-known examples need context. In a scientific essay, project or report you are going to be expected to demonstrate which you are mindful of the appropriate research on the subject and a literature review will form an. Remember your final grade significantly is dependent upon the topic. You could be gi ven the topic straight away by your professor, or you could be free to opt for the topic yourself. Following are a few of the advised sociology essay topic for those students that are unable to decide on a great topic for their assignment. Try out another topic and do the identical 5-minute writing test till you locate a topic you know you can readily write on. The topic has to be interesting, the topic has to be essential and finally the topic has to be informative. Each topic is broken into subtopics that you should prepare. If you're genuinely interested in a topic then it is a lot simpler to study and you are not as likely to stop. New Step by Step Roadmap for Essay on General Topics As any other essay, philosophy work has its features and peculiarities that have to be taken into consideration when you need to acquire the top-notch excellent work. Even if you're a specialist in a particular field, don't be afraid to use and cite external sources. If you are searching for assistance with your essay then we provide a comprehensive writing service offered by fully qualified academics in your area of study. Critical judgment of work in any certain field has little value unless it comes from somebody who is a spe cialist in that area.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This article was downloaded by: [113. 210. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Sustainable Tourism Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now 106] On: 22 March 2013, At: 07:28 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Journal of Sustainable Tourism Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www. tandfonline. com/loi/rsus20 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Jackie Clarke Version of record first published: 29 Mar 2010. To cite this article: Jackie Clarke (1997): A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5:3, 224-233 To link to this article: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1080/09669589708667287 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www. tandfonline. com/page/ terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Jackie Clarke School of Business, Oxford Brooks University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford OX33 1HX Based on an extensive literature review, this paper proposes a framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. The framework is composed of four positions, chronologically sequenced according to the dominant understanding of sustainable tourism as a possession or goal. The positions are those of polar opposites, continuum, movement and convergence. The framework offers insights into the development of the sustainable tourism concept and enables identification of an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the concept. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Introduction The understanding of sustainable tourism has developed from the early Ã¢â¬Ëis it or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ debate, to the acceptance that research energy should be channelled into practical ways of assisting all forms of tourism to move towards sustainability. The fundamental difference is the assumption of the former, that sustainable tourism is, in some manner, already a possession of certain types of tourism or situation, against the acknowledgement of the latter, that sustainable tourism is not an inherent characteristic of any existing form or situation, but a goal that all tourism must strive to achieve. The tremendous volume of output on the subject over the last decade (Brown, 1991) has contributed to the recognised ambiguity in terminology (Beioley, 1995; De Kadt, 1990; Lanfant Graburn, 1992; Murphy, 1994; Pearce, 1992, etc. ) and the surfeit of labels. For example, ecotourism has no unequivocal usage. It has been expressed as a symbiotic relationship between tourism and nature conservation (Farrell Runyan, 1991; Valentine, 1993), been equated with nature tourism (Boo, 1990), and constructed as a Venn diagram (Buckley, 1993; Wight, 1995). Occasionally, labels are combined to produce hybrids (see, for example, Dernoi, 1988; Wight,l995). As a concept, sustainable tourism is still evolving. A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism Based on a critical literature review of both academic and industry contributions, the proposed framework comprises four positions of understanding of sustainable tourism. These four positions: Ã · are broadly chronological, reflecting the dominant approach to sustainable tourism and offering insights into the conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s development; Ã · provide a structure within which an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the concept may be identified, affording insights for literature reviews. The framework is envisaged as complementary to other work (see, for example, Cazes, 1989; Pearce, 1992). As early literature commonly fixed on scale as the distinguishing feature, this is the unifying theme for the framework. As a 0966-9582/97/03 0224-10 $10. 00/0 JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Ã ©1997 J. Clarke Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997 224 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 225 criterion, scale has shifted from an emotive or even antagonistic role to neutral ground. An overview of the framework shows the positions forming two pairs. The first pair regard sustainable tourism as a current possession of a particular scale of tourism, whilst the second pair treat the phenomenon as a goal to be striven for. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 The first position of polar opposites A term adapted from Pearce (1992), the first, and probably the earliest of the four positions, was that of mass tourism and sustainable tourism conceived as polar opposites (see Figure 1). Alternative tourism was the popular label for sustainable tourism, mutual exclusion being implicit in the term. As a force, sustainable tourism was understood to be pulling away from mass tourism, which served as a point of repulsion (for commentary, see Butler, 1991; Cazes, 1989; Krippendorf, 1987; Nash, 1992; Richter, 1987; Travis, 1988; Valentine, 1993). Thus, sustainable tourism and mass tourism were stereotyped as the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢. The negative social and environmental impacts experienced at destinations were attributed solely to mass tourism, which was couched in emotive terms such s Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËghettoÃ¢â¬â¢, or Ã¢â¬ËdestructiveÃ¢â¬â¢ tourism. Of course, mass tourism also related to scale, and the scale of the tourism involved was the principal defining characteristic for the polar opposite approach. Wheeller (199la) summarised scale as the focal point: the traveller is preferred to the tourist, the individual to the group, specialist operators rather than the large firms, indigenous accommodation to multi-national hotel chains, sma ll not large Ã¢â¬â essentially good versus bad. Wheeller, l991a, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) Representing mass tourism, a Director of the Thomson Travel Group lampooned the approach by recounting his situation as an ecotourism speaker at a Royal Geographical Society gathering as being: rather like a cattle baron addressing a congress of vegetarians. (Brackenbury, 1992: l0) At its most extreme, advocates of alternative tourism pressed for a total replacement of mass tourism (cited in De Kadt, l990, 1992; Lanfant Graburn, 1992) and of CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1972) institutionalised tourist. Arguably, the position of polar opposites was strengthened by the presentation of mass versus sustainable characteristics in diametrically opposed tables (see, for example, Krippendorf, 1982; WTO, 1989). Such tables were developed into concrete notions of Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ versus Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ (see Lane, 1989, 1990). Ã¢â¬ËMass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Conceptual barrier Ã¢â¬ËSustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Figure 1 Position 1: polar opposites 226 Journal of Sustainable Tourism Thus the earliest understanding of sustainable tourism was one of a dichotomised position. Believers in the polar opposite approach clearly regarded sustainable tourism as a possession of an existing type of tourism based on small scale characteristics. Ownership was claimed by tourism forms opposed to mass tourism. In short, small was synonymous with sustainable. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 The second position of a continuum By the 1990s, the original position of polar opposites was generally rejected as unproductive, but the notion of a continuum between sustainable tourism and mass tourism presented a flexible adaptation of the earlier ideas (see Figure 2). In recognition that sustainable tourism utilised the infrastructure, transport and reservation systems of mass tourism (see De Kadt, 1990, 1992; Krippendorf, 1987; Wheeller, l991a), spawned an accompanying tourism industry structure (see Cohen, 1987, 1989; Krippendorf, 1987), and had the potential to develop into mass tourism if not properly managed (Butler, 1990, 1992; Tourism Concern, 1992), the simplicity of polar opposites was adjusted to a continuum between the two extremes. Variations were appropriately placed along the spectrum (see, for example, Davidson, 1992). Although allowing some measure of degree, the continuum understanding of sustainable tourism still regarded the phenomenon as a possession and used scale as the defining criterion. Polar opposites and continuum therefore formed a natural pair. However, the continuum approach to sustainable tourism was only ever loosely established; understanding was moving in a new direction. Ã¢â¬ËMass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËSustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ Figure 2 Position 2: continuum Criticisms: too simple, too impractical Criticisms and queries have been voiced over these early approaches to sustainable tourism. The idea of polar opposites representing Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢ was denounced as Ã¢â¬Ëgrossly misleadingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Butler, 1990). Most criticisms related to one or both of the following: Ã · Too simple: the inadequate appreciation of tourism as a dynamic and complex phenomenon resulting in the inherent flaws in this understanding of sustainable tourism. Ã · Too impractical: the question of scale and the inability of this narrow view of sustainable tourism to offer practical solutions to the global problem of the burgeoning volume of tourist arrivals. Tourism is a complex and dynamic phenomenon (Heath Wall, 1992; Przeclawski, 1993), yet sustainable tourism from the polar opposite and continuum positions assumed a homogeneity and simplicity in conflict with reality (Cooper et al. , 1993). Faced with the dramatic growth in international tourism from the 25 million trips of 1950 (WTO, 1993) to the 531 million of 1994 (WTO, 1995a) and its continued predicted growth (WTO, l995b), the replacement of mass tourism with the sustainable tourism promoted by the two positions was illogical. Being small scale, sustainable tourism lacked the capability (Butler, A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 227 Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 1990; Cohen, 1987; Cooper et al. , 1993; Fennell Smale, 1992; Pearce, 1992). Sustainable tourism could neither manage the number of arrivals nor replace the economic benefits accrued (Butler, 1992; Cohen, 1987). For Wheeller (1990, l991a, l991b), the idea was a Ã¢â¬Ëmicro solutionÃ¢â¬â¢ struggling with a Ã¢â¬Ëmacro problemÃ¢â¬â¢. Furthermore, this understanding was inward-looking, failing to recognise the importance of other industry sectors and the wider perspective of sustainable development (Hunter, 1995). Indeed, the second pair of positions better demonstrate the influence of the sustainable development landmarks that shaped the concept (for example, IUCN, 1980, 1991; The World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987; the GLOBE Ã¢â¬â¢90 and Ã¢â¬â¢92 conferences; The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development with Agenda 21). Other criticisms concerned issues such as elitism (Cazes, 1989; Richter, 1987), the problems of ensuring local ownership and control (Cater, 1992), and inbalances in power (Wheeller, 1990, l991a, l991b). Butler (1990) argued that the approach to sustainable tourism portrayed a static picture of impacts. The revision of features related to time and process produced a less flattering scenario (Butler, 1990). For example, the more intense contact between host and guest over a longer duration resulted in greater damage to the fragile host culture than was readily apparent in the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ versus Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ tables. The emergence of these tables was partly a response to an over-simplistic interpretation of KrippendorfÃ¢â¬â¢s work (1982, 1987). Krippendorf (1987) was not opposed to mass tourism as long as it progressed towards Ã¢â¬ËharmoniousÃ¢â¬â¢ tourism. In fact, he urged that: only if we succeed in living with tourism as a mass phenomenon, ? , can we claim to have made a decisive step forward, (Krippendorf, 1982: 111, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) an assertion often overlooked by proponents of a polar opposite or continuum approach. The third position of movement Criticisms of the earlier understandings of sustainable tourism, coupled with a closer alignment to sustainable development, resulted in the demand to change mass tourism to more sustainable forms (see, for example, Bramwell, 1991; Butler, 1990, 1991; Cohen, 1987; De Kadt, 1990; GLOBE, 1990; EIU, 1992). If the main problem of modern tourism is that of its huge number, (Krippendorf, 1987: 42, authorÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis) then mass tourism was the most visible and sensible candidate for initial reform. The sustainable tourism as understood under movement differed from the earlier definitions of sustainable tourism on three key dimensions: Ã · The issue of scale became more objective and less emotive. Mass tourism became the subject for improvement, rather than the derided villain. Ã · Sustainable tourism became the goal for attainment, rather than the possession of an existing scale of tourism. Operationalising current knowledge to move towards the goal became the 228 Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Ã¢â¬â¢mass tourismÃ¢â¬â¢) Large scale tourism Sustainable Tourism Goal Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Figure 3 Position 3: movement practical focus of effort, rather than the Ã¢â¬Ëis it or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢ debate of previous years. F igure 3 illustrates the understanding of sustainable tourism by movement advocates. As a label, large scale tourism is preferred to mass tourism, for it sheds the negative connotations. Viewed objectively, large scale tourism possesses strengths which could be used to advantage: Ã · The environment is attacked by other industries, such as mining and manufacturing (EIU, 1992; McKercher, 1993), and tourism is dependent on environmental quality. The tourism industry must protect its assets; size is important, as large players exert pressure through lobbying power. Ã · Large scale operators have the marketing and communication skills, plus contact opportunities in bulk, to actively foster interest in sustainable tourism amongst the millions of consumers who purchase their products. Large size confers influence over suppliers and distributors, which could be used as a persuasive force for the introduction of sustainable policies along the supply chain. Of course, there are less altruistic reasons for large scale tourism to instigate movement towards the sustainable tourism goal. The imposition of environmental regulatory control by governments grappling with world prob lems of acid rain, ozone layer depletion and global warming require a minimum response of compliance. From the demand side, the rise of consumer interest in green issues (see ETB, 1992a, 1992b; Green, 1990) provides the classic incentive of consumer needs. The interest expressed by consumers through financial institutions in environmental practices is a further motive. There are over thirty an ag em en im ts pa ct ys -e as nv ses tem iro nm s s Ã¢â¬â re ent men use t al Guid , re au eline cyc di s for le, red t susta uce inab le to urism Equity Company/organisation focus ta lm s pac im cts al pa lob G im al sic y ph al/ gic olo Ec (Ã¢â¬â¢sustainable tourismÃ¢â¬â¢) Small scale tourism iro nm en En v -e nv iro nm e nt al A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 229 Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 environmental or ethical funds in the United Kingdom, representing approximately ? 750 million of investment; according to independent financial advisors Holden Meehan (1994), the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëprofit with principleÃ¢â¬â¢ has moved from the fringe to t he mainstream. Investors are stakeholders requiring satisfaction. There are many examples of large scale tourism proactively moving towards the goal of sustainable tourism (see Middleton Hawkins, 1993, 1994; WTTERC, 1991Ã¢â¬â1994). British Airways was one of the first tourism companies to publish an environmental report (British Airways, 1991), the International Hotels Environment Initiative was a sector-specific project (Van Praag, 1992), whilst the Ã¢â¬ËGreen GlobeÃ¢â¬â¢ programme was targeted across the tourism sectors (WTTERC, 1994). The World Travel Tourism Council, a coalition of Chief Executive Officers from international tourism companies, established the World Travel Tourism Environment Research Centre (WTTERC) to monitor, assess and communicate objectives, strategies and action programmes in respect of environmental management (WTTERC, 1992). Over one hundred guidelines and codes of practice relating to tourism were identified (WTTERC, 1993); the environmental guidelines of the WTTERC itself provide a useful synopsis of the large scale understanding of sustainable tourism (WTTERC, 1992). As Figure 3 demonstrates, the focus of this approach is on the physical/ecological environment, with an emphasis on environmental management systems, incorporating techniques such as environmental audits of products, processes and issues, and environmental impact assessments. The fourth position of convergence The framework culminates in a position of convergence (see Figure 4). This position represents the latest understanding of sustainable tourism as a goal that all tourism, regardless of scale, must strive to achieve (see, for example, Inskeep, 1991). Accepting that the concept of sustainable tourism is still evolving, the absence of a precise goal definition is less important than general movement in the correct direction. Appreciating the wider role of sustainable development, this final position recognises two interpretations of sustainable tourism. The large scale interpretation of sustainable tourism (as portrayed in position three) has a dominantly physical/ecological perspective expressed as a business orientation. The small scale interpretation of sustainable tourism offers a social slant from a local or destination platform. It is akin to the understanding of sustainable tourism as alternative tourism under position one, except for the crucial recognition of the concept as a goal rather than a possession. Both interpretations: Ã · focus on the implementation of their current knowledge of sustainable tourism to move towards the ultimate goal of sustainability; Ã · seek future progress towards the desired goal through the twin processes of further development of ideas inherent in their own interpretation and by adaptation of ideas found in the other. Together, this results in convergence towards the goal of sustainable tourism. For example, in this quest, large scale tourism is experimenting with techniques for inducing shifts in tourist behaviour compatible with environmentallyfriendly travel, an educational component instigated by the small scale enterprises. Thomsons now provide environmental guidelines for guests; TUI 230 Journal of Sustainable Tourism Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 Large scale tourism al nm vi ro En Figure 4 Position 4: convergence ave produced an environment ranking for products featured in all their mainstream Euro-brochures. In turn, small scale enterprises are learning about the development of effective environmental management systems, originally the territory of large scale organisations. In the UK, the environmental audit was promoted for small scale concerns by the West Country Tourist BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) Ã¢â¬ËGreen Audit KitÃ¢â¬â¢; the project was then taken nationwide . In addition, by embracing sustainable development, both interpretations are receptive to further ideas generated from outside the tourism sector. Like large scale tourism (see position three), the small scale interpretation of sustainable tourism has produced guidelines and codes of good practice (see, for example, ETB, 1991; Countryside Commission, 1991; Green, 1990), established destination-based projects (for example, the Devon-based Tarka Project) and offered and disseminated advice to interested parties (ETB, 1992a, 1992b, 1993). -e nv iro nm en ta l en t im g olo Ec m an ag em y ph al/ ic al sic en ts pa ct ys -e as nv s e s te m ir o nm sm s Ã¢â¬â re en use tal ent Guid , re au eline cyc s for le, r dit sust edu aina ce ble t ouri sm Equity Company/organisation focus ba Gl p l im s act p im Sustainable Tourism Goal ts ac Local area identity focus Equity Guid e Loc lines for al c sust ont aina Ed rol ble t uc ouri ati To sm on u of Au ris hos tc th t/to e n ha r uri tic act st ity eri s ti cs s act ts mp pac y al i rit ultur l im a c teg loc In o cial/ tion/ a S stin De Small scale tourism A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 231 The completed framework Taken as a whole, the framework both structures and partially explains some of the conflicts and debates that have occurred in sustainable tourism. Although due regard should be given to the limitations of a framework based purely on a literature review and purporting to be complementary in nature rather than encompassing, it does present insights to past development whilst taking a view as to the direction of future advances. References Beioley, S. (1995) Green tourism: Soft or sustainable? English Tourist Board Insights, B75Ã¢â¬âB89. Boo, E. (1990) Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls. Washington, DC: World Wide Fund for Nature. Brackenbury, M. (1992) Ecotourism: Introduction to ecotourism Ã¢â¬â A sustainable option? The Bulletin of the Tourism Society 76, 10Ã¢â¬â12. Bramwell, B. 1991) Tourism environments and management. Tourism Management 12 (4), 363Ã¢â¬â4. British Airways (1991) British Airways Environmental Review: Heathrow and Worldwide Flying Operations. London: British Airways and Tecnica. Brown, F. (1991) Alternative tourism. English Tourist Board Insights, D27Ã¢â¬âD29. Buckley, R. (1993) Internationa l Centre for Ecotourism Research. Research Report 1993. Australia: Griffith University. Butler, R. W. (1990) Alternative tourism: Pious hope or Trojan Horse? Journal of Travel Research (3), 40Ã¢â¬â5. Butler, R. W. (1991) Tourism, environment, and sustainable development. Environmental Conservation 18 (3), 201Ã¢â¬â9. Butler, R. W. (1992) Alternative tourism: The thin edge of the wedge. In V. L. Smith, and W. R. Eadington (eds) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Pitfalls in the Development of Tourism. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. Cater, E. (1992) Profits from paradise. Geographical 64 (3), 16Ã¢â¬â21. Cazes, G. H. (1989) Alternative tourism: Reflections on an ambiguous concept. In T. V. Singh et al. (eds) Towards Appropriate Tourism: The Case of Developing Countries. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Cohen, E. (1972) Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research 39 (1), 164Ã¢â¬â82. Cohen, E. (1987) Alternative tourism: A critique. Tourism Recreation Research 12 (2), 13Ã¢â¬â18. Cohen, E. (1989) Primitive and remote: Hill tribe trekking in Thailand. Annals of Tourism Research 16 (1), 30Ã¢â¬â61. Cooper, C. et al. (1993) Tourism: Principles and Practice. London: Pitman Publishing. Countryside Commission (1991) Visitors to the Countryside: A Consultation Paper. Cheltenham: Countryside Commission. Davidson, R. (1992) Tourism in Europe. London: Pitman Publishing. De Kadt, E. (1990) Making the Alternative Sustainable: Lessons from Development for Tourism. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies (DP 272). De Kadt, E. (1992) Making the alternative sustainable: Lessons from the development of tourism. In V. L. Smith and W. R. Eadington (eds) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Pitfalls in the Development of Tourism. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. Dernoi, L. A. (1988) Alternative or community-based tourism. In L. J. DÃ¢â¬â¢Amore and J. Jafari (eds) Tourism, a Vital Force for Peace. Vancouver, Canada: Color Art Inc. Economic Intelligence Unit (1992) The Tourism Industry and the Environment (special report no. 2453). London: EIU. English Tourist Board (1991) Tourism and the Environment: Maintaining the Balance. Report by the government task force. London: ETB and Employment Department Group. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 232 Journal of Sustainable Tourism English Tourist Board (1992a) The Green Light: A Guide to Sustainable Tourism. London: ETB et al. English Tourist Board (1992b) Tourism in National Parks: A Guide to Good Practice. London: ETB et al. English Tourist Board (1993) Local Tourism Heritage Trust Guidelines. A Guide for Businesses and Associations Interested in Raising Money to Conserve the Environment. London: ETB et al. Farrell, B. H. and Runyan, D. (1991) Ecology and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 18, 26Ã¢â¬â40. Fennell, D. A. and Smale, B. J. A. (1992) Ecotourism and natural resource protection: Implications of an alternative form of tourism for host nations. Tourism Recreation Research 17 (1), 21Ã¢â¬â32. Global Opportunities for Business and the Environment (1990) An Action Strategy for Sustainable Tourism Development. Vancouver: GLOBE. Green, S. (1990) The future for green tourism. English Tourist Board Insights, D5Ã¢â¬âD8. Heath, E. and Wall, G. (1992) Marketing Tourism Destinations: A Strategic Planning Approach. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Holden Meehan (1994) An Independent Guide to Ethical and Green Investment Funds (5th edn). London: Holden Meehan. Hunter, C. (1995) On the need to reconceptualise sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 3 (3), 155Ã¢â¬â65. Inskeep, E. (1991) Tourism Planning. An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (1980) World Conservation Strategy. Geneva: IUCN. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (1991) Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. Geneva: IUCN. Krippendorf, J. (1982) Towards new tourism policies: The importance of environmental and sociocultural factors. Tourism Management 3, 135Ã¢â¬â48. Krippendorf, J. (1987) The Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. London: Heinemann. Lane, B. (1989) Will rural tourism succeed? In S. Hardy, T. Hart and T. Shaw (eds) The Role of Tourism in the Urban and Regional Economy (pp. 34Ã¢â¬â9). London: Regional Studies Association. Lane, B. (1990) Sustaining host areas, holiday makers and operators alike. In F. Howie (ed. ) The Proceedings of the Sustainable Tourism Development Conference. Queen Margaret College, Edinburgh. Lanfant, M. and Graburn, N. H. H. (1992) International tourism reconsidered: The principle of the alternative. In V. L. Smith and W. R. Eadington (eds) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. McKercher, B. (1993) The unrecognised threat to tourism: Can tourism survive sustainability? Tourism Management 14 (2), 131. Middleton, V. T. C. and Hawkins, R. (1993) Practical environmental policies in travel and tourism Ã¢â¬â Part 1: The hotel sector. Travel and Tourism Analyst 6, 63Ã¢â¬â76. Middleton, V. T. C. and Hawkins, R. (1994) Practical environmental policies in travel and tourism Ã¢â¬â Part 2: Airlines, tour operators and destinations. Travel and Tourism Analyst 1, 83Ã¢â¬â97. Murphy, P. E. (1994) Tourism and sustainable development. In W. Theobald (ed. ) Global Tourism the Next Decade. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Nash, D. (1992) Epilogue: A research agenda on the variability of tourism. In V. L. Smith and W. R. Eadington (eds) Tourism alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. Pearce, D. G. (1992) Alternative tourism: concepts, classifications, and questions. In V. L. Smith and W. R. Eadington (eds) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism 233 Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. Przeclawski, K. (1993) Tourism as the subject of interdisciplinary research. In D. G. Pearce and R. W. Butler (eds) Tourism research: Critiques and Challenges. London: Routledge and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. Richter, L. K. (1987) The search for appropriate tourism. Tourism Recreation Research 12 (2), 5Ã¢â¬â7. Tourism Concern (1992) Beyond the Green Horizon. London: Tourism Concern and World Wide Fund for Nature. Travis, A. S. (1988) Alternative tourism. Naturopa 59, 25Ã¢â¬â7. Valentine, P. S. (1993) Ecotourism and nature conservation. Tourism Management 14 (2), 107Ã¢â¬â15. Van Praag, H. J. (1992) Industrial leadership: A practical example in the hotel industry. Tourism and the Environment: Challenges and Choices for the 90s, November, 62Ã¢â¬â66. West Country Tourist Board (1993) Green Audit Kit. Exeter: WCTB. Wheeller, B. (1990) Is sustainable tourism appropriate? In F. Howie (ed. ) The Proceedings of the Sustainable Tourism Development Conference. Edinburgh, Queen Margaret College, November. Wheeller, B. (199la) Is progressive tourism appropriate? Tourism and Hospitality Management: Established Disciplines or Ten Year Wonders? Guildford: University of Surrey. Wheeller, B. (199lb) TourismÃ¢â¬â¢s troubled times: Responsible tourism is not the answer. Tourism Management 12 (2), 91Ã¢â¬â6. Wight, P. (1995) Sustainable ecotourism: Balancing economic, environmental and social goals within an ethical framework. Tourism Recreation Research 20 (1), 5Ã¢â¬â13. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. World Tourism Organisation (1989) Seminar on Alternative Tourism: Introductory Report. Madrid: WTO. World Tourism Organisation (1993) Seminar on the evolution of tourist markets for Europe and promotion policies. WTO News 3. World Tourism Organisation (1995a) Yearbook of Tourism Statistics (47th edn). Madrid: WTO. World Tourism Organisation (1995b) WTO News 6. World Travel and Tourism Environment Research Centre (1992) World Travel and Tourism Environment Review: Travel and Tourism Environment and Development. Brussels: WTTERC. World Travel and Tourism Environment Research Centre (1993) World Travel and Tourism Environment Review 1993: Environment and Development. Brussels: WTTERC. World Travel and Tourism Enviromnent Research Centre (1994) World Travel and Tourism Environment Review 1994: Environment and Development. Brussels: WTTERC. Downloaded by [113. 210. 1. 106] at 07:28 22 March 2013 How to cite Sustainable Tourism Development, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example Paper World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Introduction In August 1939 the world was surprised by the announcement of a nonaggression pact and trade agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. This move, uniting two apparent enemies, gave Hitler the freedom to annex more territory in the east without fear of Soviet intervention. Secret clauses in the agreement divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence and provided for the division of Poland between the two countries (Taylor 2005). Poland, aware of the significance of the German-Soviet pact, prepared to defend itself, and remained Britain and France of their promises to help it resist aggression. With Hitler becoming increasingly belligerent and tensions mounting, Europe braces itself for war. Despite the nonaggression pact with Hitler, Stalin remained wary of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s military power and sought to secure the Baltic flank of the Soviet Union. In September and October, 1939, the tiny countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were pressured by the Soviet Union into signing treaties that allowed Soviet troops to be stationed in their territories. The Soviet Union annexed those nations in 1940. On October 7, 1939, the Soviet demanded that Finland gave up land near Leningrad on the Karelian Isthmus (Taylor 2005), and grants the Soviets use of the Hango (or Hanko) naval base, and negotiations ended on November 30 when the Soviet invaded Finland. World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Body Paragraphs Thesis Statement: The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the World War II between Russia and Germany. II. Discussion A. Russian Campaign, 1941 Hitler considered the conquest of the Soviet Union to be a critical part of his plan to create a German empire. The great agricultural areas of the Soviet Union would provide room for German colonists, Russian mineral resources would be exploited for German industry, and Russian labor would be used in German factories (Remak 2006). The Soviet Union was also, in HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, an ideological enemy: Communism could never coexist with Nazism. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion plan was called Barbarossa, after the nickname of the 12th-ceentury Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. The plan called for launching three main thrusts into the Soviet Union, with immediate goals of taking Leningrad in the north, Moscow in the center, and Kiev and the Ukraine in the south. Hitler hoped that his troops could encircle large pockets of Soviet troops (Graff 2006) , as well as capture the main Soviet industrial and agricultural regions, and thus cause resistance to collapse before winter. The plan originally called for the attack to begin in May, 1941, but it was delayed until June by the need to secure the Balkans and Greece on GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s southern flank. This delay may have doomed the planÃ¢â¬âhad the Germans attacked according to the original schedule, they might have had the time to reach their objectives before the offensive was stalled by the severe Russian winter of 1941-42 (Michel 2004). On June 22, 1941, the massive blitzkrieg began. The Germans, led by Field Marshal Wilhelm von Leeb in the north, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock in the center, and Field Marshal Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt in the south, attacked with some 3,000,000 men and 19 panzer divisions. Actual tank strengthÃ¢â¬âabout 2,400Ã¢â¬âwas approximately the same as that of the 10 panzer divisions used against France in 1940 (Liddell Hart 2001). Simultaneou sly with the German attack, the Finnish army struck near Leningrad, and the Romanian army crossed into the Ukraine and drove toward Odessa. B. Russian Campaign, 1942 Russian Winter Offensive. The SovietsÃ¢â¬â¢ success in stopping the Germans before Moscow encouraged them to stay on the offensive in early 1942. The Germans were ill equipped for cold weather, and the forward lines were so far from Germany that supplying the troops became increasingly difficult. The Soviets attacked to the north and south of Moscow, hoping to encircle and isolate the German army that faced the city (Dupuy 2003). The Soviet met with unexpected success and retook much ground, but suffered such heavy losses were also heavy, in part because Hitler refused to allow his troops to fall back to defensible positions. An offensive was also begun from the besieged city of Leningrad, but the Soviets made little progress there. The Russian offensive ended in late February, and both sides made plans for spring ope rations (Sulzberger 2000). German Spring Offensive. The German campaign opened in May. The main effort was made in the Caucasus, with the capture of its oil fields as a major objective. Sevastopol, in the Crimea, fell on July 1, after a long siege. A major attack that was opened on June 28 soon was extended along a 200-mile (320-km) front between the Don and Donets rivers. After reaching the vicinity of Voronezh, the armies turned south. Maikop, deep in the Caucasus, was reached on August 9. The Germans had outrun their supplies, however, and made little further progress (Remak 2006). C. Russian Campaign, 1943-44 German Retreat from the Caucasus. The surrender of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad on February 2, 1943, left HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s forces in the Caucasus in a perilous situation. Field Marshal General Paul Ludwig Kleist conducted a successful retreat while Field Marshal Erich von Mannstein held a corridor open for him at Roslov. The Russians then launched an offensive from Vo ronezh toward the Ukraine, and captured Kursk on February 14 and Kharkov on February 16 (Michel 2004). However, efforts to continue the advance into the Ukraine were repulsed by German counterattacks, and the Germans recaptured Kharkov on March 14. Battle of Kursk. The Battle of Kursk was the culmination of what was to be the last great German offensive against the Soviet Union. The German plan was to attack the north side of the Soviet salient around Kursk with Field Marshal Gunther von KlugeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ninth Army, and simultaneously push against the southern side of the salient with the Fourth Panzer Army, led by Mannstein. These two armies would then link up and destroy the trapped Soviets (Graff 2006). German delays gave the Soviets time to prepare powerful defenses within the salient and to being in more troops and equipment. The Soviet plan was to allow the Germans to batter themselves against the Soviet defenses until exhausted, and then strike back. The two sides committed a t otal of 6,000 tanks, 4,000 aircraft, and 2,000,000 men (Liddell Hart 2001). The German attack began on July 5. Gains were small and costly, as the Soviet defenses were well prepared and the Soviets possessed air superiority. The German troops in the north advanced only about six miles (10 km) before they were stopped; those in the south gained only 20 miles (32 km) in an entire week of hard fighting. The Battle of Kursk was the largest tank battle of the war, with as many as 3,000 tanks engaged at once. The German lost some 2,000 tanks in the course of the battle, a blow from which the once dreaded panzer armies never completely recovered (Liddell Hart 2001). The SovietsÃ¢â¬â¢ losses were nearly as high, but their tank production was sufficient to compensate for the losses. Russian Offensive. On July 12, the Soviets struck back, attacking the German salient around Orel, but Soviet troops struck in the south, advancing against Belgorod. Belgorod was taken on August 5, the same day that Orel was liberated. Kharkov was retaken for the lat time on August 23. It had changed hands four times and was in ruins. By September, Soviet armies under General Ivan S. Konev, Rodion Y. Malinovsky, and Fedor I. Tolbukhin were attacking all along the Dnieper River. On November 6, after heavy fighting t Dnepropetrovsk and Melitopol, the Germans were pushed back across the river. Kiev, capital of the Ukraine, was also recaptured on November 6. On the central front the Germans were driven out of Smonlensk on September 25, but the Russian drive could not be sustained, grinding to a halt some 100 miles (160 km) east of Minsk (Sulzberger 2000). On January 15, 1944, the Soviets launched a major offensive in the north. Soviet troops struck south in two prongs from besieged Leningrad, and at the same time attacked near Novgorod. The Soviet advance continued steadily and German casualties were high. By early March, the German armies had been forced back to Estonia and Latvia. On March 4 , 1944, a new Soviet offensive opened in the Ukraine. A series of thrusts soon left the Germans with only an uncertain foothold in the Soviet Union. KonevÃ¢â¬â¢s army reached the Romanian frontier before the end of the month, and ZhukovÃ¢â¬â¢s troops were at the border of Czechoslovakia on April 8. After the fall of Odessa two days later the Germans had little hope of holding any part of the Ukraine (Remak 2006). A Soviet drive into the Crimea resulted in the liberation of Sevastopol on May 9. D. Final Russian Campaign, 1944-45 The Soviet Union opened its summer campaign of 1944 on June 9 with an attack on Finland. The Mannerheim Line was broken on June 18 and Viipuri was captured. Finland signed an armistice on September 4. On the other hand, Hitler was convinced that the next great Soviet offensive would be in the south part of the Eastern Front, with goal of seizing the Balkan states and their important resources. Accordingly, he moved much of his strength away from the cente r of the front in Byelo-russia and put it in the south. The Soviets, however, were planning an attack in the center (Remak 2006). III. Conclusion As a conclusion, as the war drew to a close, the nations of the word were eager to find a means of attaining permanent peace. In 1945, the United Nations was established and its charter was signed by 51 countries. However, threats to the friendly settlement of postwar problems appeared even before the charter was signed. The Soviet Union, for example, had antagonized the United States and Great Britain by annexing the Baltic states. And by making extreme reparations demands upon Germany, Hungary, and Poland. After the war, the Soviets disagreed with the other Allies about the application of the agreements they had reached concerning the status of conquered and occupied territories. Although they had promised to allow self-determination for the people of the territories they had occupied, the Soviets brought most of the Balkan nations under Communist rule. They also supported rebels in Greece, turkey, and Iran, aided the Communist uprising in China, and closed off Eastern EuropeÃ¢â¬âincluding the Soviet occupation zone of GermanyÃ¢â¬â to the outside world. These actions led to a prolonged period of tension called the Ã¢â¬Å"cold warÃ¢â¬â¢ between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. Soviet-dominated Europe, said Winston Churchill, was separated from the rest of the world by an Ã¢â¬Å"iron curtain.Ã¢â¬ We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on World War II between Russia and Germany Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer
Friday, March 20, 2020
Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Research Paper Example Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Paper Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Paper Space research has many advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are that many discoveries have been made due to space research. This knowledge can help us become a more developed society and it helps the economy. Space research can benefit us by discovering technology that will help us with our lives. Technologies have been discovered thanks to the space program such as Teflon which is a non- stick cook wear will continue to improve our lives. Space research and exploration may help us discover new elements and minerals that could help earth by provided things like medicine. These studies will help us to become a more developed society and is one reason why space exploration and research is helping for our society. Space research and exploration is also very valuable for the economy because it provides jobs and tourism. Many jobs are required for space research for example scientists, engineers and even manufactures that can help in make parts for the space program. Space research also can improve AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism because people will come over here to look at our space programs especially scientists. Space research and exploration is not only good for knowledge but also the economy. Space research is also important because earth may not be able to continue to be a sustainable planet because of things like global warming and nuclear wars. It is extremely beneficial to study space so that we can find a life sustaining planet that we may be able to evacuate to. This an example of why space research is important in sustaining humans and other life forms. On the other hand space research has some extreme disadvantages. These disadvantages are that we should fix earthÃ¢â¬â¢s issues and the detrimental environmental impacts. The first major reason against space research is that it is incredibly expensive and we should be spending this money on more important things. Space research is incredibly expensive and may achieve no direct benefit. The money should be spent on earthÃ¢â¬â¢s issues rather than trying to know more about the universe. The money could be spent on fixing world poverty, health and education but instead it is spent on knowing more about space. This seems terribly unfair and appalling because people are dying and we our spending money on space. We should be fixing earthÃ¢â¬â¢s issues before wanting to know more about space. The second major reason is that space research can have some detrimental impacts on the environment. The space Industry uses millions of tons of coals every year which waste gas, like carbon dioxide, discharged into air annually, resulting a series of environment problems such as ozone hole and acid rain directly. The space program is harmful for the environment and the environmental impacts will only continue to rise. Overall, I believe that space research is important but should not be put ahead of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s issues.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
50 Types of Propaganda 50 Types of Propaganda 50 Types of Propaganda By Mark Nichol Are you a propagandist? If you write nonfiction intended to persuade, yes, by a broad definition, you almost certainly are. Here are fifty terms for, and definitions of, forms of propaganda, at least one of which such writers will likely employ in a given piece of content. Propaganda (the word is from a New Latin term meaning Ã¢â¬Å"propagating,Ã¢â¬ synonymous in this connotation with publicizing) has been defined as Ã¢â¬Å"communication intended to shape perceptions, manipulate cognition, and direct behavior.Ã¢â¬ ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a broad definition a narrower one would limit propaganda to willful, prejudicial manipulation of information but it helps writers and readers understand that because almost any content can be considered propaganda, they must be alert to the subtext of almost any content they produce or consume. 1. Ad hominem: attacking opponents rather than opponentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas or principles 2. Ad nauseam: repeating ideas relentlessly so that the audience becomes inured to them 3. Appeal to authority: use of authority figures (or perceived authority figures such as celebrities) to support ideas 4. Appeal to fear: exploitation of audience anxieties or concerns 5. Appeal to prejudice: exploitation of an audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to believe that it is virtuous or morally or otherwise superior 6. Bandwagon: exploitation of an audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to conform by encouraging adherence to or acceptance of idea that is supposedly garnering widespread or universal support 7. Beautiful people: depiction of attractive famous people or happy people to associate success or happiness with adherence to an idea or cause or purchase of a product 8. Black-and-white fallacy: presentation of only two alternatives, one of which is identified as undesirable 9. Classical conditioning: association of an idea with another stimulus 10. Cognitive dissonance: using a favorable stimulus to prompt acceptance of an unfavorable one, or producing an unfavorable association 11. Common man: adoption of mannerisms and/or communication of principles that suggest affinity with the average person 12. Cult of personality: creation of an idealized persona, or exploitation of an existing one, as a spokesperson for an idea or a cause 13. Demonizing the enemy: dehumanizing or otherwise denigrating opponents to sway opinion 14. Dictat: mandating adherence to an idea or cause by presenting it as the only viable alternative 15. Disinformation: creating false accounts or records, or altering or removing existing ones, to engender support for or opposition to an idea or cause 16. Door in the face: seeking compliance with a request by initially requesting a greater commitment and then characterizing the desired outcome as a compromise or a minor inconvenience 17. Euphoria: generating happiness or high morale by staging a celebration or other motivating event or offer 18. Fear, uncertainty, and doubt: disseminating false or negative information to undermine adherence to an undesirable belief or opinion 19. Flag waving: appealing to nationalism or patriotism 20. Foot in the door: manipulation by encouraging a small gift or sacrifice, which establishes a bond that can be exploited to extract more significant compliance 21. Glittering generalities: applying emotionally appealing but vague and meaningless words to an idea or cause 22. Half-truth: making a statement that is partly true or only part of the truth, or is otherwise deceptive 23. Inevitable victory: assurance of uncommitted audience members and reassurance of committed audience members that an idea or cause will prevail 24. Join the crowd: communication intended to persuade the audience to support an idea or cause because it is or will be the dominant paradigm 25. Labeling or name-calling: using euphemistic or dysphemistic terms to encourage a positive or negative perception of a person, an idea, or a cause 26. Latitudes of acceptance: introducing an extreme point of view to encourage acceptance of a more moderate stance, or establishing a barely moderate stance and gradually shifting to an extreme position 27. The lie: false or distorted information that justifies an action or a belief and/or encourages acceptance of it 28. Love bombing: isolation of the target audience from general society within an insular group that devotes attention and affection to the target audience to encourage adherence to an idea or cause 29. Managing the news: influencing news media by timing messages to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s advantage, reinterpreting controversial or unpopular actions or statements (also called spinning), or repeating insubstantial or inconsequential statements that ignore a problem (also called staying on message) 30. Milieu control: using peer or social pressure to engender adherence to an idea or cause; related to brainwashing and mind control 31. Obfuscation: communication that is vague and ambiguous, intended to confuse the audience as it seeks to interpret the message, or to use incomprehensibility to exclude a wider audience 32. Operant conditioning: indoctrination by presentation of attractive people expressing opinions or buying products 33. Oversimplification: offering generalities in response to complex questions 34. PensÃ ©e unique (French for Ã¢â¬Å"single thoughtÃ¢â¬ ): repression of alternative viewpoints by simplistic arguments 35. Quotes out of context: selective use of quotations to alter the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s or writerÃ¢â¬â¢s intended meaning or statement of opinion 36. Rationalization: use of generalities or euphemisms to justify actions or beliefs 37. Red herring: use of irrelevant data or facts to fallaciously validate an argument 38. Reductio ad Hitlerum: persuasion of an audience to change its opinion by identifying undesirable groups as adherents of the opinion, thus associating the audience with such groups 39. Repetition: repeated use of a word, phrase, statement, or image to influence the audience 40. Scapegoating: blaming a person or a group for a problem so that those responsible for it are assuaged of guilt and/or to distract the audience from the problem itself and the need to fix it 41. Selective truth: restrictive use of data or facts to sway opinion that might not be swayed if all the data or facts were given 42. Sloganeering: use of brief, memorable phrases to encapsulate arguments or opinions on an emotional rather than a logical level 43. Stereotyping: incitement of prejudice by reducing a target group, such as a segment of society or people adhering to a certain religion, to a set of undesirable traits 44. Straw man: misrepresentation or distortion of an undesirable argument or opinion, or misidentifying an undesirable persona or an undesirable single person as representative of that belief, or oversimplifying the belief 45. Testimonial: publicizing of a statement by an expert, authority figure, or celebrity in support of an idea, cause, or product in order to prompt the audience to identify with the person and support the idea or cause or buy the product 46. Third party: use of a supposedly impartial person or group, such as a journalist or an expert, or a group falsely represented as a grassroots organization, to support an idea or cause or recommend a product 47. Thought-terminating clichÃ ©: use of a truism to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic 48. Transfer: association of an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s positive or negative qualities with another entity to suggest that the latter entity embodies those qualities 49. Unstated assumption: implicit expression of an idea or cause by communication of related concepts without expressing the idea or cause 50. Virtue words: expression of words with positive connotations to associate an idea or cause with the self-perceived values of the audience Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Farther vs. FurtherA While vs Awhile35 Synonyms for Rain and Snow
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Social Impact of Tourism - Essay Example In addition to the misrepresentation of identity, changes may occur in community structure, family relationships, shared customary life styles, services and ethics (Din, 1988). Tourism can cause positive social impact as well by means of supporting for peace, promoting cultural traditions and helping circumvent urban repositioning by creating local jobs. Socio-cultural impact becomes indistinct when various cultures meet at the single point of intersection as it may be perceived by some of the groups as positive whereas it may be perceived as negative by some of the groups as well. This paper aims at finding out the social impacts of tourism. Tourism has positive impact on environmental condition. Tourism has the capability to encourage social development by virtue of employment creation, capital distribution and poverty mitigation (web link 6). Travelling is an influential dynamic element that brings individual into get in touch with another individual and a culture into the contact with another culture, as tourism consists of learning element, it may provide knowledge among individuals and cultures and offer cultural exchange among hosts and guests. This eventually results in increasing mutual understanding, mutual respect and in reducing the reciprocated prejudices for each other. - Reinforcement of communities Tourism may adjoin to the strength of communities in several fashions. Example includes the events or carnivals during which the local inhabitants may play the role of primary participants and the spectators may participate as the secondary components and revitalize the events which are further progressed by the interaction of tourist interest. Tourism industry can create jobs that contribute as a vital enticement in order to decline in emigration from country areas. Local individuals as well as local events can contribute in the development of tourism industry and enhance their job and production prospect by means of receiving tourism related professional training as well as business and organizational skills development. - Benefits received by local residents as a result of facilities provided by tourism sector Tourism focuses on the development of services inclusive of communal public services to entertainment services which eventually brings in higher living standards in the local sector of the target destination. The uplifting of standards may include in an improvement in infrastructure, enhancement in health sector and transportation, introducing new recreational facilities, restaurants, and public sectors as well as an arrival of improved commodities and food (Cohen, 1984; Pizam, 1978). - Revaluation of culture and traditions Tourism can enhance the safeguarding and conduction of cultural and historical practices, by means of contributing to the preservation and prolonged management of natural possessions, the conservation of local traditions, as well as a revolution of aboriginal culture, arts and crafts. - Encouragement of civic involvement and pride Tourism has a great impact in raising mass awareness about natural resources and its financial value as well as about cultural significance. Additionally, it may also arouse a feeling of pride in local and national traditions and may encourage