Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s house serves on a number of levels as the central image in the play. How does Lorca use the house to convey his ideas? Ã¢â¬ In order to arrive at the central idea in Federico GarciaÃ¢â¬â¢s last play, Ã¢â¬Å"House of Bernarda AlbaÃ¢â¬ , the title is the first factor to be reflected on. Lorca has not presumably named the play Ã¢â¬Å"Bernarda AlbaÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"Day of Bernarda AlbaÃ¢â¬ . He had named the play Ã¢â¬Å"House of Bernarda AlbaÃ¢â¬ because it will let the reader draw attention both to BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËhouseÃ¢â¬â¢ in the sense of BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s family and to the physical space of house itself, which functions as the central image of the play. The play employs number of themes which are supported by the central image of house. The state of house such as colour, size, temperature, condition and props, which are nonverbal elements all link with the theme which Federico is trying to convey. These features will aid to provide the audience with information about the setting of the play and give insight to the underlying ideas such as dictatorship, purity, fate and choice, freedom, confinement, and sexual oppression. The play commences with the brief description of the house, which aid to communicate the central idea of purity, and fate and choice to the audience; Ã¢â¬Å"Very white inner room in BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s house. Thick walls. Arched doorways with jute curtains trimmed with black beads and ruffles. Ã¢â¬ These descriptions are the important elements of the house. Readers are able to obtain the associated idea from the play by having a general understanding of the setting. From the description, first, colour is the element to consider. The walls of the house are all painted white. Because the play is set in Spain, this is the characteristic of homes in the country, since white reflects the sunlight and prevents house from heating. Though, the Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ colour in a deeper meaning, symbolises the purity and virginity. All the daughters in the house have not married yet, and after the funeral of the second husband, they are not allowed to look at men. Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ also represents the restriction of freedom and choice, where the restriction of choice is derived from evidence that all the rooms are coloured white. The girls have no choice; they cannot choose their destiny. Moreover, the family name Ã¢â¬ËAlbaÃ¢â¬â¢ means white. This colour is seen as a contrary to the black dress of the women in the mourning as they enter the house. The colour black symbolises death and have an effect of foreshadowing the death of the character Adela, a victim of BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s tyranny. The decoration, props and set of the room also aids in obtaining the idea of dictatorship and confinement. The Ã¢â¬Å"Thick wallsÃ¢â¬ indicates difficulty for the girls to escape the confinement of BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s control, again suggesting the idea of restriction of the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom. From the description of the house,Ã¢â¬Å"Arched doorways with jute curtains trimmed with black beads and ruffles. Ã¢â¬ the jute curtains are described as being tied with black beads and ruffles. The jute is used for making rope and rough fabric, which symbolises men as ropes are generally used for menÃ¢â¬â¢s labour. Therefore it is symbolic for male presence in the home, likely from BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. Though, the black beads indicate the stage of mourning the house is in due to death of BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. The decoration, Ã¢â¬Å"Pictures of nymphs or legendary kings in improbable landscapesÃ¢â¬ depicts imaginary places, but it is an alternate reality which girls wish to escape to. In the form of picture and being hung on the white wall emphasise that the fantasy is in place where it is out of reach for the girls. The kings serve as an idea of dictatorship in the house, which in this play, Bernarda is the Ã¢â¬Å"kingÃ¢â¬ , the ruler and the house is her castle. Through the symbolism of heat we see that Lorca makes the reader realise the tension heightening within the characters, which conveys the idea of sexual oppression. At the beginning of the play, Bernarda locks her daughters into the house, away from the outside world. Ã¢â¬Å"There are eighty years of mourning ahead of us. While it lasts not even the wind will get into this house. Ã¢â¬ Since BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband died, she does not want her daughters to be open to the outside world. Bernarda, trying to be helpful, wants her daughters to be pure and safe. But since the house is locked, no wind will come in the house and therefore heat will build up in the house. If the wind is symbolised as the men, the daughters who are not exposed to the wind (men) builds up their sexual desire. Characters who are not victim of this heat are the male characters that are shown outside the house. They are cooler in the patio or in the fields, suggesting symbolically that they do not suffer from sexual frustration. Ã¢â¬Å" Is the lemonade ready?Ã¢â¬ ¦ Give some to the men. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re having some on the patio. Ã¢â¬ The symbolism of what is inside the house and what is outside is also illustrate the idea of freedom and dictatorship. The doors and windows serve as a both barriers and bridges. To the daughters, the outside represents freedom, new life, and sexual fulfilment. Throughout the play, the daughters number of times runs to the window and look at the outside world: the crowd leaving the funeral, men going to work in the fields, and arrival and departure of Pepe el Romano. Ã¢â¬Å"Since heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be coming around the corner, you can see him better from the window in your room. [ The Maid exits. Adela hesitates for a moment, then she, too, rushes off towards her room. ] Bernarda strikes Angustius for looking out through the cracks of the back door, maintaining the idea of no freedom and choice for the girls. To Bernarda, the outside of the house represents threat to the reputation of her family name. She does not want her privacy to be spread in public, from her urge to protect her daughters. BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s power in the house means that sexual activity takes place outside the house as the house is completely under her control. This is evident when the Maid says, Ã¢â¬Å" Rot away, Antonio Maria Benavides, stiff in your woven sit and your high boots! Rot away! Never again will you lift up my skirts behind the back corral! Ã¢â¬ The back corral is outside the house, which illustrates the lack of restrictions out of the house. Another example is when Pepe and Adela meet. They do not meet at the house, but at the corral. accentuate Lorca was successful in portraying the idea of the play through the central image of house, which included; dictatorship, purity, fate and choice, freedom, confinement, and sexual oppression. BernardaÃ¢â¬â¢s house thus functions as a central image in LorcaÃ¢â¬â¢s final play by the use of colour, symbolism and other element of scenic design. The readers are able to obtain the various ideas Lorca is trying to inform, and we also get an idea of how some households were like in Spain during the civil war time. Moreover, this play was written during the FrancoÃ¢â¬â¢s regime of Spain, which there were fascism involved. Women were treated unfairly in the society, such as their pay. Women could not make choices of their own including marriage. This point reflects the idea of daughters not being able to marry due to commanding power by Bernarda. The fact that these nonverbal elements of the house contributing to the central idea of the play makes the reader think deeply, which let us gain true appreciation for a work Lorca has done for his final moments of life. Words: 1257
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Jacob Standage Daniel Hogan English 99 5 November 2012 Swimming Pools by Kendrick Lamar Many people listen and like music just for the rhythm or the flow, but not many people realize what kind of a message some of these artists are trying to send to society through their lyrics. Kendrick Lamar or Ã¢â¬Å"K-dotÃ¢â¬ , the lyrical genius of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rap culture, is one of my all-time favorite artists in hip-hop and is one of the rappers that send these messages to their audience.Recently, one of K-dotÃ¢â¬â¢s popular new singles Ã¢â¬Å"swimming poolsÃ¢â¬ got released rapidly throughout the world. This single impacted society positively inspiring teenagers and anyone else with a family member that has drinking problems to get through it and to never give up by relating himself in that same situation, and it also impacted older high school and college students by hazing the negative effects of alcohol and also by stating the false feelings alcohol portrays.Some of Kendrick Lama rÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics can have positive effects for teenagers growing up with, or living with, parents and family that are irresponsible drinkers by inspiring the teens to push through it and not to give up when times could get bad. He is very successful at this because he can relate to anyone in this situation. I think that the name of Ã¢â¬Å"swimming poolsÃ¢â¬ serves as a metaphor for how some peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are so engulfed by alcohol that itÃ¢â¬â¢s like their constantly swimming in it.Kendrick himself in one of his lyrics states Ã¢â¬Å"now I done grew up round some people livin their life in bottles, granddaddy had the golden flask, backstroke every day in ChicagoÃ¢â¬ . In stating Ã¢â¬Å"granddaddy had the golden flaskÃ¢â¬ this is not to say that his grandpa is a classy drinker, but rather that he may be an enthusiastic drinker and with having enough time to pour liquor from a bottle into a flask, his granddaddy probably has a drinking problem. In other words, Kendri ck is explaining that his grandpa is one of those people that are engulfed in alcohol, relating to anyone else with this problem.Equally, Ã¢â¬Å"backstroke every day in ChicagoÃ¢â¬ , explains how his grandpa is doing a backstroke in this swimming pool of liquor meaning that he is drinking every day and probably has a problem. Also, when he states Ã¢â¬Å"now I done grew up with some people living their life in bottlesÃ¢â¬ he can be referring to his grandpa and everyone else around him being a bad influence. These two lyrics can inspire other teenagers in this situation to get through it and to inform them that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not the only ones dealing with these kinds of problems, also just not to give up when times get hard.Other than creating a positive impact on teenagers with alcoholic parents, Kendrick also sends a positive message to high school and college students by portraying how they may act, drinking at a party or anywhere else, by his own experiences. For example, Ã¢ â¬Å"I was in the dark room, loud tunes, looking to make a vow soon, that imma get fucked up, fillin up my cup, I see the crowd move, changing by the minute, and the record on repeatÃ¢â¬ . Kendrick, by this lyric, puts the setting probably at a house party meaning he is probably targeting more of high school and college students.In this lyric, Kendrick is justifying that he is at a party and he is pretty much making a promise to himself that he is going to get irresponsibly drunk (just like college and high school students do when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at parties). Then, right after that lyric Kendrick finishes up with Ã¢â¬Å"took a sip and another sip, then somebody said to me, (hook) why are you only babysitting two or three shots? Imma show you how to turn it up a notch, first you get a pool full of liquor then you dive in itÃ¢â¬ .In other words, Kendrick is saying that he was sipping shots relatively moderately and then someone at the party sees him not slamming them down, so that person peer pressures him into taking more shots and not stopping until he is completely drunk. This is not to say that getting drunk is a good thing, but rather to inform high school and college students that getting peer pressured into drinking carelessly happens and precautions should be made. Getting peer pressured at parties happens because of the alcohol induced lifestyle reflecting itself onto others simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s the cool thing to do.Kendrick also makes note of the false feelings alcohol can portray in his lyrics. In his second verse, this is proved by, Ã¢â¬Å"I think that im feelin the vibe, I see the love in her eyesÃ¢â¬ . Basically Kendrick is mocking the feeling of alcohol. He is probably one more shot away from death, but he is still Ã¢â¬Å"feelin the vibeÃ¢â¬ . He is telling his audience the false feelings alcohol gives people when they consume large amounts. In addition, he states Ã¢â¬Å"I see the love in her eyesÃ¢â¬ meaning this is another false feeling that alcohol may give people generally because when people are drunk , they are more attracted to women.These fake feelings can get anyone that consumes too much alcohol into danger simply because they think that they are ok but in reality no one is Ã¢â¬Å"okÃ¢â¬ after consuming massive amounts of alcohol. This fake feeling can make people push themselves way past their limits and put their life at risk. In short, Kendrick is informing people that may not know what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to be this drunk and encouraging them not to do so, affecting society positively. Believe it or not, the single Ã¢â¬Å"swimming poolsÃ¢â¬ by Kendrick Lamar has a positive impact on society.People may disagree because of the negative context of the song, but if someone really looks into his lyrics, they might find themselves extremely surprised of what Kendrick is actually portraying. He inspires teens that have parents with drinking problems, portrays the negative effects of alcohol, and als o the false feelings alcohol gives drinkers. By doing this, he helps society become aware of the problems of drinking and also is a kind of inspiration to the teens and other people that abuse the use of alcohol. Works Cited Kendrick Lamar. Ã¢â¬Å"Swimming Pools (drank). Ã¢â¬ Good Kid m. A. A. d City. Interscope, 2012. CD.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Issues In Financial Reporting - Essay Example IASC has seven members which "have formal liaison responsibilities with the national standard-setters in their respective countries" (Carrol and Dixon, 2003). These countries are the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and New Zealand (the last two being represented by the same liaison member). Earlier the Australian Financial Reporting Council supported the policy of international harmonization in the sphere of accounting standards; Australian government launched one of the most effective programs of compliance with the IFRS in the world; at the same time Australia had a very developed accounting system which allowed to effectively monitor the firm's condition. However, recently the Australian Financial Reporting Council (AFRC) proclaimed the policy of adoption of IFRS. Such radical change has caused a lot of debates whether this decision will be a benefit to Australia or will worsen its position. This essay is dedicated to analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the AFRC's decision. Since globalization is one of the main tendencies in international economy, the interaction between Australian companies and foreign firms is increasing. It is common knowledge that volumes of international trade are growing rather in geometrical than in arithmetical progression. The countries which will be the first to open their economies to international trade, will receive the chance for significant economical growth. One of the necessary demands of international trade is the compliance of accounting standards and maximal ease of financial reporting. Adoption of IFRS, according to Collett et al. (2001), will lead to the increase of capital flow to the national market, and will also give the possibility to export the capital to other countries with lower cost for this and with simplified procedure. On one hand, these arguments are evident; the increased flow of capital is likely to benefit economical growth of the country. On the other hand, the expansion of foreign capital means a challenge to the national companies; it can also be doubted that national capital will quickly flow to other countries; this can be true only for countries with less developed economical and financial system than the Australian one. In my opinion, it is difficult to determine whether this argument belongs to advantages or disadvantages of IFRS adoption since the flows of capital depend on many other factors. 1.2. Improvement in capital market efficiency There exists an opinion that adoption of IFRS will lead to better accuracy of capital pricing and to higher efficiency of Australian
Friday, September 27, 2019
(Criminal Justice) Ethics, Justice, and Law - Assignment Example There are different ways in which such distribution can be conducted (Pollock, 2008). Egalitarian distribution calls for all participants to receive equal shares. Marxism, though, contends that the resources should be shared based on need. That means that those citizens with the greatest need will receive more with few needs. Libertarianism supports the notion that resources should be distributed on merit. This means that those who meet a pre-determined standard of values are the ones most likely to have the greatest number of resources. Lastly, utilitarianism supports the notion that resources should be distributed on the basis of a mixture of need and merit. In the criminal justice system, distributive justice can be realized by ensuring that all classes of prisoners, who commit the same crime, are handed the same sentence. For instance, the nephew of a powerful politician who commits embezzlement and is caught, should be forced to face the same punishment as a homeless man who steals from an unmanned shop. In all areas of life, the lack of distributive justice results in feelings of aggrievement in the parties who feel that they are held up to a standard that others are excused from for one reason or another. This can then result in violent protests, and other criminal behavior. What is the purpose of corrective justice? Compare and contrast the different forms of substantive justice, including remedial, retributive, and utilitarian. Which form of substantive justice should the criminal justice system pursue? Corrective justice seeks to deal with criminals by handing down punishment for the crimes they commit. In substantive judgement, the criminal is handed a punishment that correlates with the level of crime he has commited. In retributive justice, the judge seeks to restore the balance by correcting what the criminal has done to society. In regards to utilitarianism, a stiff punishment is handed to the offender in the hopes of deterring others from
Thursday, September 26, 2019
MICROBIOLOGY - Coursework Example Catalase test is used to identify organisms that are capable of producing catalase enzyme. The enzyme converts toxic H2O2 into water and oxygen and thereby prevent the formation of highly dangerous hydroxyl radicals. 2H2O2 Catalase 2H2O + O2 To test catalase activity, the culture must be of 18- 24 hour as old culture lose catalase activity and may display false negative test. The emerging bubbles in catalase positive test is due to the formation of oxygen gas. Aerobic bacteria in general display catalase positive test while most of the anaerobes are deficient in catalase enzyme indicating the sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria towards oxygen. E.g. Catalase positive organisms are Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. Catalase negative organisms are Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. Bacto Agar or plain agar is used for the study as it contains calcium and magnesium. On the contrary, blood agar are unsuitable to carryout catalase test as blood contains catalase (Web: Catalase t est, n.d.; Pelczar, 1993). 2. Explain the principle of Oxidase test. Oxidase test is a test for the presence of cytochrome oxidase (playing vital role in electron transport chain or ETC) which catalyses oxidation of reduced cytochrome by oxygen. Cytochrome oxidase transports electrons from the ETC to oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor. The principle is utilized to test the organisms for the production of cytochrome oxidase. To test this ability of microorganisms, artificial electron donors and acceptors are provided. As soon as the electron donor (1.0-1.5 percent solution of tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine hydrochloride) is poured over the colonies, it is oxidized by cytochrome oxidase. Oxidase positive colonies become maroon, purple and black in 10-30 minutes (Pelczar MJ. 1993). E.g. Members of Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae are oxidase positive (Pelczar, 1993). 3. Explain how Oxoid Chromogenic UTI media (Clear) works. Oxoid Chromogenic UTI media is a nonselective medi um to isolate, differentiate and enumerate the pathogens prevalent in urinary tract and are responsible for urinary tract infection. The medium facilitates the differentiation and identification of E. coli and Enterococcus without undergoing confirmatory tests (Web. Dehydrated Culture Media, n.d.). The principle utilized is based on the difference in susceptibility prototypes of the microorganisms. For the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, the organism must be identified to the species level. However, the prevalent species Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia spp. produce enzymes for the metabolism of glucosidase or lactose or both and aids identification. On the contrary other microorganisms may not produce enzyme for such substrate fermentation (Web. Dehydrated Culture Media, n.d.). The chromogen mixture present in the Oxoid Chromogenic UTI media (Clear) comprises artificial substrates or chromogens which are responsible for releasing different colored compounds when specific microb ial enzymes released by Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia spp act on substrate molecules, thereby a differentiation process works for the detection of certain species or a group of microorganism (Isenberg and Garcia, 2004). For instance the chromogen X-glucoside is a substrate for ?-glucosidase enzyme of enterococci which form blue colonies while chromogen red-galactoside is utilized by enzyme ?-galactoside generated
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Strategic Audits of Delta Airlines - Research Paper Example Delta exists to include people of different diversities, religions, races, education, sexual orientation, gender identification, family status, geographical regions, citizenship, and styles of communication, socioeconomic background, skills, knowledge and much more. It is a great supporter of local organizations which focuses specifically on wellness and social health. For instance, Delta airlines has sponsored Cancer Society in America, Carter Center, Breast cancer centers, Network for Children Miracle, St. Jude Children Hospital, Humanity Habitat and much more (Datamonitor, 2010). Delta also is effective in supporting community-based organizations. For instance, the museums that enlighten, inspire, and exhibit people to make them important and enhance the betterment of this world is in partnership with Delta airlines. Other partnership includes Current partnerships include the Tribeca Film Festival, National Black Arts Festival, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, the Minnesota Orchest ra, High Museum of Art, Fox Theatre, Guthrie, and many more partners (Datamonitor, 2010). The objectives are in consensus with each other and they resonate well with the mission and external environment. For instance, Delta is involved in community activities which fulfill one of its missions.Delta airline is a company that strives to promote a culture that includes all the members in all levels of the operational environment. In addition, the management at the top acknowledges any level of contribution of all the stakeholders.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Balanced Scorecard for Banagas - Essay Example From this report it is clear thatÃ Balanced Scorecard was created in 1992 by Robert S. Kaplan and David Norton. It is a method for measuring a company's activities in terms of its vision and strategies giving managers a comprehensive view of the performance of a business. Generally, Balanced Scorecard can be characterized as a strategic management system that forces managers to focus on the important performance metrics that drive success. It balances a financial perspective with customer, internal process, and learning & growth perspective.As the report highlights Balanced Scorecard from a financial perspective measures reflecting financial performance, for example number of debtors, cash flow or return on investment. The financial performance of an organization is fundamental to its success. It should be noticed that the financial perspective of Balanced Scorecard usually refers to the estimation and evaluation of the figures revealed in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts (trying to l ocate the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s current performance) as they can analyzed and presented using the common financial analysis practices.Ã From a Business Process Perspective, Balanced Scorecard measures the reflection of the performance of key business processes, for example the time spent prospecting, number of units that required rework or process cost.Ã The evaluation of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and aims Ã¢â¬â as part of the specific area of Balanced Scorecard analysis and implementation Ã¢â¬â has to be regarded as a challenging task.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Public Relations for Non-Profit Organization - Essay Example Therefore the media should take at least six weeks before handing over the message to the media to be publicized, this timing normally include preparing, distribution and deciding on the method that is effective enough to reach the public. 1 On the effective methods to be applied, the media person may apply the following methods: Community Calendars and Public Service Announcements, under this, calendars are mainly used to promote respective events in the society these events are always of general interests for all non- profit organisations, for them to be listed in the medias schedule, they should be written earlier before the particular event is practiced. While the Public Service Announcements are normally easy to read since they require little rewriting. Theses announcements should be organized in a manner that will be able to make the audience retain the message. In case of an electronic media, the information should be typed and double spacing should be provided including the phonetic pronunciations for the unknown words, it should also indicate who will be conducting the event, the venue, the nature of the event, and the date of the event. One should consider the opinions of the editorial staff of the media house on the issue that would be used to create interest to the public. Under this case, if anyone comes up with an opposing view, then he is given an opportunity to rebut the issue. For the announcement to be productive it should therefore be brief, accurate and clear on the message that the practitioner intends to communicate to the public.2 The director of the association should therefore seek promotion of the association, to enable them generate a positive image through media coverage by the use of publications and broadcasts which will afterwards influence the public in financing the agency. As a director you should then ensure that the following strategies are applied in the association; Public relations- this is normally defined as, the process of correcting the reputation of the organisation to the targeted audiences with the current issues of the association. This normally involves the evaluation of public and personal opinions over a particular issue, formulation of procedures related to communication between the association and the audiences, and coordination of communication programs within and without the particular departments of the association. The use of public relations is, to enhance a positive media coverage thus increasing the awareness of the organisation to the public; therefore the Windwill Housing Association should use the following tactics in achieving this goal: Writing News Releases: This should involve framing of the issue which should be written with a journalistic angle, this should be used to inform the public about the financial problem under which its headline should be Attractive, thus grabbing the readers attention, its paragraphs should contain relevant information about the subject matter including the who, what, when, why and where questions this release should also be able to describe the history of the associatio
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Poverty in America Essay Poverty is a disturbing but significant global concern. Just as it is for millions of other people all over the globe, poverty is occurring in America. Over the past decades, income disparity is ascending, in addition to the number of communities that failed to keep up with the national economic standard. Although poverty is present everywhere, it is more serious in developing countries, wherein one in every five person lives on not more than $1 for each day, which is the threshold being applied by the World Bank to classify poverty. The unrelenting problem of poverty is a multifaceted one that embraces individuals and communities who, without their fault, find themselves powerless to manage in this information-intensive and constantly developing world. For the majority Americans, poverty implies destitution, or the lack of ability to provide the family with reasonable shelter, clothing, and nutritious food. Despite the fact that material destitution does exist in America, it is relatively confined in severity and scope. To be aware of poverty in America, it is necessary to observe several statistics, as well as to observe the actual living conditions of the persons that are considered poor by the government. Overview of Poverty in America A large numbers of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population live at or below the threshold of poverty, which means payment of bills every month and financing for the essentials, consisting of shelter, clothing, and food, not counting access to health care and a number of simple comforts is a constant struggle. According to estimates in 2003, roughly 25 percent of counties in the United States had low rates of workforce participation, soaring rates of unemployment, high reliance on government transfer expenditures, and incomes that is lower than one-half of the national average or less for each person. The Census Bureau classifies poverty as a family of three earning not more than $14,680, and not more than $9,393 for a worker without any dependent (Blanco, 2004). According to the 2003 statistics of the Census Bureau, almost 36 million Americans lived in poverty, which is 1.3 million more in 2002. Since 2000, the country has experienced an increase of 4.4 million people who lives in poverty (Blanco, 2004). According to a survey, the present American families are experiencing worse living conditions than they have in the previous years, as 10 percent of all families or approximately 7.6 million families in 2003 lived in poverty, which is an enormous ascend from the previous years (Blanco, 2004). In 2005, the registration of the United States Census Bureau of poor individuals in the country totaled to approximately 37 million poor Americans (Rector Johnson, 2004). Therefore, there is one in every eight Americans that is struggling with inconceivable poverty. These millions of Americans are asserted to be deficient of the necessary clothing, shelter, and enough money for the food, as well as being forced to live in unpleasant conditions (Rector Johnson, 2004). Common Factors of Poverty In the concluding half of the 20th century, the three factors that are generally offered to explain movements of poverty in the United States are changes in family structure, economic inequality, and income growth. If the average per-capita incomes are increased, such as increasing wages and employment, then it is expected that poverty will generally decline. Nevertheless, economic inequality can take the edge off the overall constructive impact of income growth if lower-income workforce and unemployed citizens do not benefit from the fruits of such development. On the other hand, changes in the family structure, primarily the ever-increasing number of families headed by female may be linked with higher rates of poverty for the reason that such families are more expected to be poor and are more economically vulnerable. I. Economic Equality Certainly, the country has made several enhancements over the intervening decades in terms of the overall minimum living standard as measured through material conditions. Yet the living conditions of the poor individuals are severely different from that of families and individuals who take advantage of various degree of economic security as measured through income levels that provide unstressed and comfortable situations. The escalation in the number of poor individuals and families in the country ought to provide the government various apprehension, but even more upsetting is the increasing difference between the underprivileged and wealthy in America. In the previous decades, compensation for more affluent Americans has considerably ascended, stimulated by increase in stock options, bonuses, salaries and other rewards. However, the compensation provided for millions of lower-wage workforces dropped off; and in fact, a number of them have even lost their jobs (Blanco, 2004). Therefore, this factor has prevented the advantages of economic growth from being equally drawn out. Moreover, in 2005, non-Hispanic white men, not less than 25 years of age, holding only high-school qualification have $35,679 median income; whereas women within the same age group, need a degree in college in order to obtain a comparable median income (Spriggs, 2007). The outcome is that the households headed by female are harmed by the major earnings gap, which has a poverty rate of 31.1 percent in contrast to their male-headed household counterparts, which only had a 13.4 percent poverty rate (Spriggs, 2007). In 2005, poverty for women is excessively elevated than men, which is14.1 percent in contrast to 11.1 (Spriggs, 2007). The disparity reflects unrelenting gaps in earnings between male and female workers. At the same time, since 1959 the median income of white males with a family of five has been higher than the poverty line, but for women with a family of three, it was only in 1990 that their median income broke beyond the poverty line (Spriggs, 2007). Further, notwithstanding the progressive structure of benefit procedure in Social Security benefits, the constant gap is best reflected in disparities in poverty among the elderly, where the lifetime earnings of women suggest they have lower assets than men. II. Family Structure Higher rates of poverty among women have generally been contributed to the changes in family structure. The percentage of families headed by single female with children rapidly rose over the previous decades of the 20th century, which reached 26.5 percent in 1995 from only 11.5 percent of all families with children in 1970; with higher rates for Hispanics and blacks. At the start of year 2003, roughly 26.1 percent of the entire families with children in the country were headed by single woman. A number of such families do not obtain any or adequate child support from the absent fathers of the children. It is suggested in one study that if fathers married the destitute mothers of their children, approximately three-quarters of the single-parents would instantly be elevated outside poverty status (Rector Johnson, 2004). Obviously, two parents in a household generally earn more than single-parent. The burden of receiving enough income to raise dependent children outside poverty additionally confronts women who are the single head of the family, as well as getting and paying for child care concurrently with their work and management of the household without help. Since this hazard confronted by women of serving non-working dependents as well as their efforts in looking after their elderly parents is not distributed by society, women who head such families are expected to obtain lower levels of education, therefore, resulting to their lower earnings. Aside from the fact that women are more expected to earn significantly less than men with similar qualifications, mothers have a tendency to accumulate less experience than other workers. III. Income Growth Poverty is associated with the lack of sufficient income, so the core problem therefore is the compensation for the workers. Among the poor, only 11.4 percent or 2.9 million jobs around the clock is available for the whole year (Spriggs, 2007). This sector of the population is further directly impaired by minimum-wage laws that have hindered costs of living. This setback is particularly severe for poverty stricken American-Hispanics and American-Asians, where 18 percent of them worked year-round for full time (Spriggs, 2007). There are several reasons why numerous people lack the income to overcome poverty. For instance, people do not work or if they work, they do not earn sufficient amount of money. Whether in good or bad economic times, the ordinary poor family with children exerts only 800 hours of work throughout a year or 16 hours of work for each week (Rector Johnson, 2004). Evidently, almost 75 percent of poor children would be lifted outside certified poverty status if work is provided in every family, that would increase the work hours to 2,000 for every year or comparable to 40 hours for each week all through the year (Rector Johnson, 2004). In 2005, approximately 61 percent underprivileged families have no less than one worker; and of twice-poor families, 71 percent have no less than one worker. In view of the 1990s record job creation, the number of poor but working people declined to 8.5 million in 2000 from 10.1 million in 1993. In short, America is capable of dealing with poverty. But there have been vast stubborn concerns that have lodged the face of poverty. Mounting disparity in the labor market has increased the share of the working age poor citizens, and the unsympathetic federal minimum-wage laws that have amplified the numbers of poor people working year-round for full-time. In a country with a per capita Gross Domestic Product is exceeding the poverty line for a family of four, it is atrocious that there are still more than 12 million poverty stricken American children, and nearly 3 million people work around the clock, for one whole year who are still finding it hard to make ends meet. Facts Concerning the American Poor Sector Based on the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted definition of poverty, only a small number of the 37 million individuals fit the poor description, contrary to what the Census Bureau classified. Despite the fact that real material destitution undoubtedly does take place, it is limited in severity and scope. A number of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s underprivileged lives in material conditions that would be considered as well-off or comfortable some generations ago. The following are information obtained from different government reports regarding people classified as poor by the Census Bureau: 1. Roughly 46 percent of the entire poor households actually own their individual houses (Rector Johnson, 2004). The typical house owned by persons identified as poor by the Census Bureau is a three-bedroom house with a garage, one-and-a-half baths, with at least a patio or porch. 2. About 76 percent of underprivileged families have air conditioning in their houses (Rector Johnson, 2004). By comparison, merely 36 percent of the entire population of the United States benefited from air conditioning 3 decades ago. 3. Only 6 percent of the underprivileged families are considered overcrowded, and not less than two-thirds of them have extra two rooms for every person (Rector Johnson, 2004). 4. The typical poor American has more living space than the average individual living in Athens, Vienna, London, Paris, and other cities all over Europe (Rector Johnson, 2004). 5. Practically three-quarters of poor families own an automobile, while 30 percent own at least two automobiles (Rector Johnson, 2004). 6. Approximately 97 percent of poor households own at least one colored television, while half of the said percentage has at least two colored televisions (Rector Johnson, 2004). 7. Roughly 78 percent own DVD or VCR players, while 62 percent have satellite or cable television reception (Rector Johnson, 2004). 8. Around 73 percent of the poor households have microwave ovens, one-third owns an automatic dishwasher, and over half own a stereo system (Rector Johnson, 2004). Further, as a group, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s poor are far from being constantly malnourished. In fact poor children have usual protein intakes of 100 percent beyond the medically suggested levels and consume more meat than children of higher-income do (Rector Johnson, 2004). Nevertheless, despite the fact that in general the poor are well-nourished, there are still several poor families who experience short-term distress due to food deficiencies. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, although most of the time the hunger is temporary, still 2.6 percent of poor children and 13 percent of poor families experience food shortage sometime during the year (Rector Johnson, 2004). Approximately 89 percent of the poor account sufficient food to eat to their families, at the same time only 2 percent says they often do not have adequate food to eat (Rector Johnson, 2004). Conclusion / Recommendations Following the United States government classification of poverty, the typical poor American people have a living standard far superior as compared to what the public envisions. Nevertheless, the typical poor personÃ¢â¬â¢s living conditions should not be taken to suggest that every poor American lives devoid of hardship. Millions of Americans are still continually struggling to hang on, making tough choices between housing, hunger and health care for their families. Economic inequality, income growth, and changes in family structure without doubt affected poverty trends over the latter half of the 20th century. Poverty in America can be readily reduced, if parents are provided with sufficient hours of work and if fathers are at all times present with their families. Although marriage and work are unyielding ladders away from poverty, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare system uncooperatively continues to be unsympathetic to both. Foremost programs such as Medicaid, public housing, and food stamps keep on reprimanding marriage and rewarding idleness. Therefore, if welfare could be turned around to uphold marriage and work, the remaining number of poor family would quickly decrease. Further, as a matter of course, the United States has employed over the years job creation and economic growth to trim down poverty, but at present situation the courses are consequential only to the extent that inequality on wages is reduced. Poor people are generally not victims of themselves, but of appalling economic policies along with obstructions to opportunity. Since work generates income, it is important therefore that the government must provide a great increase in available working hours in different labor sectors for the poor. Along with the work opportunities, it is also important to eliminate economic inequalities based on gender, age, economic status, and many others in order to provide higher wages and higher incomes to the underprivileged sectors of the country. America is a nation with one of the most productive and strongest economies in the world. As such, the country must exert a continuing effort to fully utilize the abundance and therefore eliminate the country Ã¢â¬â¢s alarming poverty rate.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Cross-Cultural Perspectives Essay The Coca Cola Company, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest multinational beverage manufacturer and corporation, operates bottling plants and sells its products in more than 200 countries across the globe (The Coca Cola Company, 2014). Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s massive global presence requires the organization to understand the different cultures of its many host countries; the laws within each country; and the business norms, styles, as well as practices of each country it conducts business operations in. The company has developed and implemented numerous policies, regulations, and guidelines for its suppliers, operation management, and employees in its various host countries. But, all of this detailed undertaking to address transparencies in the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chains throughout the world did not stop its El Salvadoran bottling and manufacturing plantÃ¢â¬â¢s management from purchasing refined sugar from a mill which used child labor. According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), up to one third of the workers on El SalvadorÃ¢â¬â¢s sugarcane plantations are under the age of 18, with many starting to work in the fields between the ages of eight and eleven (HRW, 2004). Even though, the national and international child labor authorities prohibit minors under the age of 18 from performing hazardous or harmful work, plantation owners define these young children and teenagers who work with their parents as Ã¢â¬Å"helpersÃ¢â¬ instead of the workers they actually are (Veracity, 2006). The above paragraph represents one of the many cross-cultural issues facing Coca Cola and the myriad of other multinational organizations interactions outside the United States. In these various host countries having your children working beside you is considered common cultural practices; it provides additional income for the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s survival because the poor state of many of their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy (such as El Salvador) allows these injustices to continue. Regardless, of why these children are working in the sugarcane fields, and the fact that Coca Cola does not actually purchase itsÃ refined sugar directly from the plantations, the company is in direct violation of its own Ã¢â¬Å"Guiding Principles for Suppliers to Coca Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬ policy. The policy states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Suppliers will not use child labor as defined by local law,Ã¢â¬ but Coca Cola fails to extend this policy one step further in the supply chain to include the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s supplier of raw material (Veracity, 2006). So, in the long-term means that the organization is just as socially and ethically responsible for the use of child labor as well as the harm working in the field create as the suppliers and the plantation owners. The Coca Cola formula was invented in 1886 by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in Columbus, Georgia; and the formula as well as the brand was purchased in 1889 by Asa Griggs Chandler who incorporated The Coca Cola Company in 1892 (The Coca Cola Company, 2014). Throughout its many years of operations the business always demonstrated strong market orientation; exhibited strategic decision making processes; and took actions to attract, satisfy, and retain customers. All of these positive actions have just added to companyÃ¢â¬â¢ s advantage and profitability over competitors in the beverage industry, which is why they are number one in the world. Nevertheless, as the organization began to expand its operations into more and more host countries around the globe it has been involve with quite a number of misconduct and questionable unethical behavior. As a result, these legal and ethical problems have had an impact on the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performances, investor trust, and reduced its sales levels. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Coca Cola Company is now engaging in an operation to rebuild its brand image and credibility, improve its sells, and reinforce its reputation by developing and implementing stronger company ethical and social responsibility throughout its entire global marketplace (The Coca Cola Company, 2014). There have been a number of events other than child labor in El Salvador where Coca Cola has been involved and held accountable in unethical behavior. In Colombia, Turkey, and Guatemala bottling plants the company has been accused of hiring paramilitary mercenaries to assassinate, torture, and coerce workers, their family members, and union leaders as they attempted to unionize to protect workers from unfair treatment and abuse by the host countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ employers. These incidents sparked an campaign entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Stop Killer CokeÃ¢â¬ , and a 2009 PBS documentary filmed by German Gutierezz and Carmen Garcia entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"The Coca-Cola CaseÃ¢â¬ Ã to reveal the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s practices to consumers around the world (Huff, E. A., 2010). Of course, Coca Cola denied the allegations against the company and its bottling partners, where cleared of any wrong doing in the foreign courts. When the case was brought to the United States, Coca Cola fought and succeeded in having its name removed from the lawsuit (Huff, E. A., 2010). Another ethical and social responsibility issue the company encountered, actually there are two environmental issues concerning the depletion of groundwater and polluting of water in India. Coca Cola operates 52 water intensive bottling plants in India using 3.8 liters of freshwater to generate a liter of carbonated drink. While in the Southern Indian village of Plachimada in Kerala state groundwater along with loca l wells dried up forcing residents to rely on water supplies trucked in daily by the government due to persistent droughts, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bottling plants. In the rural Indian state of Uttar Pradesh where farming is the primary industry the residents have been experiencing similar conditions, only the government is not supplying enough water for the crops. As a result of the groundwater depletion situations the business is not only responsible for the loss of livelihood and hunger for the many citizens across India, but the creation of thirst. In 2003, the other issues of polluted water were discovered near the Kerala and Uttar Pradesh bottling plants. Sludge containing high levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium was given to farmers as free fertilizer to tribal farmers who lived near the plants, but the need for fresh water was overlooked by Coca Cola. As a side note, an Indian nonprofit group tested 57 carbonated beverages made by both Coca Cola and Pepsi at 25 bottling plants were found to be contaminated with between three and five different pesticides (The Corporation, 2009). Although, the organization denied creating the problems, the Indian government ordered Coca Cola to shut down one of its $25 million plants. The organization then thought long and hard about its corporate social responsibility (and lost revenue); and decided to improve their business practices in the local communities, reduced the water usage by 34%, started rainwater harvesting, and returned substantial amounts of water to depleted aquifers. They also stopped distributing sludge, joined with the Indian government to develop additional solid waste disposal sites, and began treating the water used to make soft drinks with activated carbon filtration (The Corporation, 2009). Coca Cola conducted all of these improvements to regain the trust of the local communities and the Indian government. But, my question would be, why not practice these ethical and corporate responsibility policies from the beginning? As more and more organizations are utilizing the opportunity of transitioning into multinational operations, they will have to research how business is conducted, the local laws, as well as the government policies and operation methods of every host country they wish to operate in. Then they will have to incorporate and implement all of their ethical and corporate social responsibility they employ in their home country universally throughout the entire business operation. Creating a unified culture that will adhere to a high level of business behavior in all global operations, respecting all of the local workforcesÃ¢â¬â¢ cultures and traditions, and eliminating the use of any unethical values or behaviors from home and abroad. References Huff, E. A. (2010, May, 22). Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s Murderous Record of Anti-Union Activity Exposed Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/028844_coca-cola_html. The Coca Cola Company (2014). Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/our-company. The Corporation (2009). Ethical Issues Concerning Coca-Cola in India. Retrieved from http://imaginecorporation.blogspot.com/ethical-issues-concerning-cocacola-in.html Veracity, D. (2006). Coca-Cola, Human Rights and Child Labor Retrieved from http://www.naturalmatters.net/article.asp?article=1301cat=219
Friday, September 20, 2019
Market Segmentation in Brazil What is market segmentation? To identify target market we need to divide the market into small segments according to the consumer characteristics and their needs. This segmentation allows companies to gain higher market share or niche market. Why we need market segmentation? To enhance profits for business Some of the consumers have different types of nonrefundable income. So they are so much sensitive to the products price. By using market segmentation consumers can see average prices on the products. Therefore business will enhance the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. To give better chances for development of the business Normally market segmentation will increase sales. Consumers can be fortified to buy the product after some of introduction of the product lower price. To keep more customers ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ environments change frequently. For an example they may get older, they find new jobs, they change their buying rates etc. Therefore marketing products needs to address different customerÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycles. Otherwise they switch to new products or brands. To enhance target market communication Companies need to deliver the products details to appropriate consumer spectators. If the target market share is too comprehensive, there is a high risk to that product. Because they miss some of the key consumers and also they increase their communicating cost as well. Therefore that may become the product unprofitable. So with the market segmentation we can target the best most valuable customers and reach them at lower communicating cost. To gain stake of the market If the company business hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any strong position in the target market they are likely to be less profitable. If our production brand doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any scale of economy they are pressured by the other distributors and they limit their market share. So segmentation and targeting will gain more competitive position in the market. Also it will reduce the marketing costs as well. And also their product may become the most favored choice among the consumer groups. The main point is the segmentation will allow small and medium sized enterprise firms to strive with the large scaled enterprises firms. Target market or market segmentation in Brazil Target market: Brazil younger generation ranging age 18 to 39 We used these profilers to segment the market Geographic Demographic Psychographic Behavioral In recent years market research says that BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s younger generation ranging from age 18 to 39 is more likely to drink Herbal tea. Because younger generation likely to try innovative products of tea as well as they more concern about their physical condition. This group has the largest segment at 69% of the total population (201 million). We choose younger generation because of they can be easily influenced by the media, they more likely to try new things. As a health and slim due women have a tendency to have more interested in herbal tea products rather than male. Both genders will see our products as a healthy beneficial beverage. According to the research, technology of the Brazil it is approximately 10.1% ahead of the global average. That means there are about 75,982,000 internet users in the country. And also their popular technology device is mobile phone. So by using majority of internet users and mobile phone users we can promote our product to their younger generation more easily. Because media is the best way we can influence them to buy our product. Market research shows that 68 percent of people are employed. Market research shows that 25 percent of the younger generation both female and male is working very long time. So they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t much time to bother about their physical condition. So we can influence them to use our herbal tea to maintain their physical condition. Research says that Brazil average household income and average personal income is above $10,000. That means they have a better income distribution, so they can buy our herbal tea product. And also Brazil education index is above the average for all world country education indexes. So they have better education system. So our product can be sold to the younger generation of Brazil easily. The marketing researches explain in 2018 the herbal tea consumption of Brazil will be 70% of their market size. Because now dayÃ¢â¬â¢s younger generation will be mature in following years. So they know the health benefits of drinking herbal tea. So targeting the younger generation of Brazil will increase our sales and revenues. Life style is split consumers by their interests and hobbies. In Brazil they are much more likely to be healthy and likely to spend leisure time. Additionally, to the proposed tea product the main target group would be those who are likely to be healthy and like to consume healthy beverages. Usually younger generation like to have tea in the restaurant. Then we can offer our herbal tea product to them and we can tell them that our product will well-suited with any kind of food in the restaurants. When we considering social class most of the Brazilian people falls into the middle class. These middle class people are more likely to have an impending to purchase our herbal tea product. In addition the herbal tea product pricing should be acceptable to ensure that these middle class people will agree to the product price and to their average income factor. So we need to consider target market with relevant to the social class also. When considering geographic factor we can sell our herbal tea product in the university areas, restaurants near to the universities and workplaces. Buying behavior is another market segmentation type. Research shows that Brazil urban population growth increases 1.19 percent every year and their rural population decrease 0.89 percent every year. So their urban population is in a higher position. So we can targ et those urban areas to market our product. Normally 84 percent is the urban population of the total population. In most cases buyers buy benefits. Thus in order to address different consumer behaviors our herbal tea benefits needs to be tied up. So we need to segment our product with higher health benefits. Because younger generation like more value addition to their buying product and also they seek more benefits from one product. When considering behavioral segmentation we need to identify what is the product usage, type of the user etc. when bearing in mind some of younger Brazilians likely to have tea in the morning except black coffee. Because research shows that black coffee pretends to cause some diseases in human heart blood flow. Thus Brazil younger generation more like to maintain their physical conditions in a good way. Thus they more likely to be move to find some healthy productions. Therefore our herbal tea product will suit for that issue because already the younger generation moves from coffee to tea. Before we market our product we need to find out loyal consumers in Brazil. S o for that we need to do some secondary analysis of the tea providers in Brazil. Thus when we picked a country then we need to join some conferences where the Brazilian tea providers drive. After that we need to build some relationship with them and find some valuable consumers with their help. So this is the hard segmentation for any company. Benefit wanted is the other segmentation type. Market research says that many younger generation consumers in Brazil demands several benefits from one product. So our product will give healthy benefits as well as a nice soft drink to them. Benefits of market segmentation More competent advertising We can advertise the small market segments easily and more effectively. When we segment the market we inherently segment the marketing decisions as well. Then we can use some magazines, blogs and websites to market the product. Segments will generate new focus to the company If company can hit the right segment earlier they can adjust their business to focus for more paybacks. In this way companies design a new product based on the new segments and with a thinner focus. For an example, beverage companies focus on healthy factor of their products. Increase the focus of the company Segmentation is an effective and efficient mechanism to enhance the focus of a firm based on market segments. If the company has healthier focus they can earn improved outcomes. If the companies can focus market segments with their strategy they can gain more profits and more market share.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Napster Debate When I first heard the word Ã¢â¬ËNapsterÃ¢â¬â¢ I had no idea what it was, I thought maybe it was a new insult phrase going around my high school. With time I figured out that Napster had to do with online music. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen much coverage on TV and was curious, so I decided to surf the Internet and check it out. Once reaching the site I found no music for sale, no discography or lyrics as is common with most music sites online. Instead there was a program available for download that allowed user-to-user transferring of music files. I went ahead and downloaded the program, not knowing that six months later Napster would have a tremendous influence and impact in the music industry, changing the way we view music forever. The Napster software, launched mid 1999, allows Internet users to share and download MP3 files directly from any computer connected to the Napster network. The software is used by downloading a client program from the Napster site and then connecting to the network through this software, which allows sharing (uploading and downloading) of MP3 files between all users connected to the network. Napster doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t own any MP3s, nor do people get MP3s through the server. It is strictly a go-between for user-to-user downloads (Gibney 1). An MP3 file is a type of compressed wave file. The advantage of MP3 files is that they are approximately one-tenth the size of the corresponding wave file and are very high quality. Many artists, record labels and other music industry stakeholders are concerned by the MP3 file format and applications because of the high quality and accessibility (Gibney 1). There are two types of MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s available on Napster. The first are legal MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s that are authorized by artists to circulate on Napster for promotional purposes. These MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s are often music selections made by up and coming artists trying to make their music more accessible to the public. The second type of MP3s are not authorized by artists. A Napster user with copyrighted CD material can create MP3Ã¢â¬â¢s with their computer CD ROM drive. Then through NapsterÃ¢â¬â¢s software, the userÃ¢â¬â¢s homemade MP3 is available for trade ( MTV 1). Napster does not physically infringe any copyright laws, itÃ¢â¬â¢s users do. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t condone the use of illegal MP3s in any way, but at the same time there is no opportunity in the software to stop copyright infringement (Gelber 3).
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Troubled IagoÃ Ã Ã Ã Unquestionably the most perfidious character within the cast of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello is the cunning Iago. He spends his life, it would seem, taking revenge on the general and destroying nearly everyone around himself. Helen Gardner in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and FortuneÃ¢â¬ elaborates on IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s exact function and place in the play: . . . Iago ruins Othello by insinuating into his mind the question, Ã¢â¬ËHow do you know?Ã¢â¬â¢ The tragic experience with which this play is concerned is loss of faith, and Iago is the instrument to bring Othello to this crisis of his being. His task is made possible by his being an old and trusted companion, while husband and wife are virtually strangers, bound only by passion and faith; and by the fact that great joy bewilders, leaving the heart apt to doubt the reality of its joy. The strange and extraordinary, the heroic, what is beyond nature, can be made to seem the unnatural, what is against nature. This is one of IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s tricks. (143) IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s very language reveals the level at which his evil mind works. Francis Ferguson in Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each OtherÃ¢â¬ describes the types of base, loathsome imagery used by the antagonist Iago when he Ã¢â¬Å"slips his mask asideÃ¢â¬ while awakening Brabantio: Iago is letting loose the wicked passion inside him, as he does from time to time throughout the play, when he slips his mask aside. At such moments he always resorts to this imagery of money-bags, treachery, and animal lust and violence. So he expresses his own faithless, envious spirit, and, by the same token, his vision of the populous city of Venice Ã¢â¬â IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"world,Ã¢â¬ as it has been called. . . .(132) Iago is the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ bad guy in the sense that his type is just what ... ...is. Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Ã¢â¬Å"The Noble Moor.Ã¢â¬ British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Wright, Louis B. and Virginia A. LaMar. Ã¢â¬Å"The Engaging Qualities of Othello.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Introduction to The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare. N. p.: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1957.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The story opens with the town of Guellen (which literally means Ã¢â¬Å"excrementÃ¢â¬ ) preparing for the arrival of famed millionairess Claire Zachanassian. The town is In a state of disrepair, and the residents are suffering considerable hardship and poverty. They hope that Claire, a native of the small town, will provide them with much- needed funds. Alfred Ill, the owner of Guellen's general store and the most popular man In town, was Claire's lover when they were young, and agrees with the Mayor that the task of convincing her to make a donation should fall to him.As the town athers at the railway station to prepare for Claire's arrival, they are met with an unexpected surprise when Claire steps off of an earlier train. She Is grand, grotesque, and fantastic, and Is accompanied by two henchmen, her husband, a butler, and two eunuchs, along with a coffin, a caged black panther, and various pieces of luggage. She begins a flirtatious exchange with Ill, and they promptly revlslt t heir old haunts: Petersen's Barn and Konrad's Village Wood. Ill finds her as delightful as ever, though they are both now in their sixties and significantly overweight.Claire draws Ill's attention to her prosthetic leg and artificial hand. After settling into the Golden Apostle Hotel, Claire joins the rest of the town, who have gathered outside for a homecoming celebration. A band plays, gymnasts perform, and the Mayor gives a speech. Claire takes the opportunity to announce that she will make a donation of one million dollars, half for the town and half to be shared among the families. The townspeople are overjoyed, but their happiness is dampened when Claire's Butler steps forward to reveal her condition. The Butler was once the Lord Chief Justice ofGuellen, and had overseen the paternity suit that Claire had brought against Ill in 1910. In the suit, Ill had produced two false witnesses (who have since been transformed into Claire's eunuchs), and the court had ruled in his favor. Ill went on to marry Matilda, who owned the general store, and Claire moved to Hamburg and became a prostitute. She declares to the townspeople that she has come to Guellen to prove that Justice can, indeed, be bought. Her donation is conditional on Ill's death. When the Mayor refuses, the town cheers in support, but Claire states rather minously, Ã¢â¬Å"I'll wait. Ill feels generally confident about his status in the town. However, as time passes, he begins to feel troubled about their growing discontent, and then increasingly fearful as he begins to notice the proliferation of new yellow shoes on the feet of the townsmen, and the fact that everyone seems to be purchasing especially expensive items on credit. He goes to see the Policeman to demand that he arrest Claire for having threatened his life, but the Policeman tells him that the threat is nonsense. Ill then turns to the Mayor, who echoes similar sentiments.Both figures are armed, because Claire's black panther has escaped f rom his cage and is prowling about the town. This only feeds Ill's fear, since Ã¢â¬Å"my black pantherÃ¢â¬ was Claire's pet name for him In their youth. He runs to see the Priest, but the Priest seems to be turning away from him as well, as he effectively Ignores Ill's fears and Instead draws attention to the magnificent new church bell. Slowly, the standard of living in the town rises, even though the townspeople continue to assure Ill that he is safe. Claire then receives the news that her black panther has beenKlllea, ana sne nas a Tuneral song played In Its memory. In an effort to escape, Ill heads to the railway station, but finds that, strangely, the entire town is gathered there. They ask him where he is going, and he says that he is planning to move to Australia. They wish him well, again assuring him that he has nothing to fear in Guellen, but Ill grows increasingly nervous nonetheless. The train arrives, but he decides not to board, believing that someone will stop him anyway. Paralyzed, he collapses in the crowd, crying, Ã¢â¬Å"I'm lost! After some time passes and Claire weds a ew husband in the Guellen Cathedral, the Doctor and the Schoolmaster go to see her and explain that the townspeople have run up considerable debts since her arrival. The Schoolmaster appeals to her sense of humanity and begs her to abandon her desire for vengeance and help the town out of the goodness of her heart. She reveals to them that she already actually owns all of properties in the town, and that she is the reason the businesses have been shut down and caused stagnation and poverty for the citizens.The Doctor and the Schoolmaster are aghast at this revelation. In the meantime, Ill has been pacing the room above the general store, his terror growing as the townspeople buy more and more expensive products on credit. News reporters, having received word of Claire's imminent wedding, are everywhere, and they enter the store to get the scoop on Ill, having heard that he was Claire's lover back in the day. The Schoolmaster, drunk, tries to inform the press about Claire's cruel proposal, but the townspeople stop him. Finally Ill descends the stairs, surprised at the hubbub, but quiet.The reporters clear the room when they hear hat Claire has Just divorced the man she has Just married, and has found a new lover. After the confusion has cleared, the Schoolmaster and Ill have an honest discussion. The Schoolmaster explains that he is certain that Ill will be killed, and admits that he will ultimately Join the ranks of the murderers. Ill calmly states that he has accepted his guilt, and acknowledges that the town's suffering is his fault. The Schoolmaster leaves, and Ill is confronted by the Mayor, who asks whether Ill will accept the town's Judgment at that evening's meeting. Ill says that he will.The Mayor hen suggests that Ill make things easier on everyone and shoot himself, but Ill refuses, insisting that the town must go through the process of act ually Judging and then killing him. Ill goes for a ride in his son's newly-purchased car, accompanied by his wife, Matilda, and his daughter, both of whom are wearing new outfits. As they drive through Konrad's Village Wood, Ill says that he is going to go for a walk through the woods before heading to the town meeting. His family continues on to the movie theater. In the woods, Ill comes across Claire, who is walking with her newest husband.She asks her husband to leave so that she and Ill can speak privately. They reminisce about the past, and make plans for the future. Claire tells Ill that she plans to take his body away in the coffin to a mausoleum in Capri that overlooks the Mediterranean. She also tells Ill that she has never stopped loving him, but that over time her love has grown into something monstrous. The town meeting is flooded with press, and the town publicly announces their acceptance of Claire's donation. They then go through the formality of a vote, which is unan imous, and the Mayor states that they have Ill to thank for their new-found wealth.The press is then ushered out of the auditorium to enjoy refreshments. The doors are locked, and the lights are dimmed. The Priest crosses Ill, and he is killed by the townsmen. Just as a reporter reappears In tne au01torlum, tne Doctor announces tnat II I nas oleo Trom a neart attack. The reporters gather, and declare that Ill has died from Joy. Claire examines the corpse, gives the Mayor his check, and leaves the town with Ill's body in the coffin that she brought with her when she arrived in Guellen. Claire boards the train at the railway station, and the visit comes to an end.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Sociological/Psychological criticism on JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ The villagers in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ are crazy and the story itself is annoying. The people in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s short story have strange religious beliefs and at times seem heartless. Shirley Jackson adds way too many specific details in the story. All of the unneeded details made this story much longer than it needed to be. Reading Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ made me want to slam my computer into a brick wall. The townspeople in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ had an odd religious belief.They believed that they had to sacrifice a person once a year in order for their crops to be successful. The villagers are extremely ignorant for thinking that is true. The narrator says it has been a tradition of their culture for many years, but they should have already figured out that this belief is in fact a myth. Not only are they ignorant for believing in this tradition, they are cruel for stoning the victim to death. If they are going to sacrifice on of their people, they could at least hang the person or shoot them in the head so they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to suffer for long.Though the villagers think of this day just as normal as any other, June 27th is the day that they perform this messed up ritual. For example, Mrs. Hutchinson arrived late to the lottery because she forgot about it. Ã¢â¬Å"WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have me leave mÃ¢â¬â¢dishes in the sink, now, would you Joe? Ã¢â¬ was her excuse. Mrs. Hutchinson is obviously a crazy and careless individual because she canÃ¢â¬â¢t even remember what day one of the people in her society is going to be murdered.The narrator states that Ã¢â¬Å"the lottery took less than two hours, so it could begin at 10 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning and still be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for noon dinner. Ã¢â¬ This statement shows that the villagers are more worried about how lo ng this ritual will last rather than the fact that one of their people is going to be brutally killed. Another statement that proves that the villagers were rushing through the ritual carelessly was when Mr. Summers said, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s finish quickly. Mr. Summers said this immediately after Tessie unfolded the paper which revealed the black dot. Careless and hungry for their noon dinner, the villagers urgently pelted Tessie with stones without giving her any bit of time left on earth. I think the most sickening part of the story was when the kids were running around collecting stones as if it were a game. The kids did not even realize the seriousness of death as they collected weapons that were going to be used to murder an innocent person.The sad part is that when those kids become adults they will most likely think that this ritual is completely normal. When they have kids, they will teach them the same awful belief that they were taught during their youth. Besides how idiot ic the villagers were, I disliked all of the unnecessary details Shirley Jackson used in this story. Jackson spent way too much time explaining how the lottery is setup and how it used to be setup. As soon as you start to think that the lottery is about to begin, Mrs.Hutchinson arrives late, Dunbar was not present, and a tall boy named Watson speaks about how he is drawing for his mother in this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s lottery. Once the lottery finally begins, Jackson makes the character, Mr. Summers, list almost every familyÃ¢â¬â¢s name to come draw from the old black box. As the head of each family went to draw from the box, there were comments said to one another that were unneeded in the story. For example, when Steve went to draw from the box, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hi JoeÃ¢â¬ and then Mr.Summers said Ã¢â¬Å"Hi SteveÃ¢â¬ . As more people walked up to draw from the box, Mrs. Dunbar said to her oldest son, Ã¢â¬Å"I wish theyÃ¢â¬â¢d hurry. Ã¢â¬ Immediately after reading that line, I sa id to myself, Ã¢â¬Å"me tooÃ¢â¬ . I did not enjoy reading Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ . The villagers in the story are very careless and cruel people. Not only did I not like the characters, but the story itself. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s short story was long drawn out and boring. Make sure to take ibuprofen before reading awful story.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The mobile phone is one of the greatest invention in 20th century. We can not imagine how is our life without the mobile phone. It is an obvious truth that the mobile phone gives us benefits in some aspects of life. Using mobile phone distributes our communication to make it easier than before. Besides a mobile phone can provide us with a lot of functions like relaxing with music, chatting or playing games. However, today people especially young people are becoming addicted to using the mobile phone. They can not stay away from their phones, even for a minute. Perhaps, because of the benefits of the mobile phones, most people do not realize lots of negative effects that the mobile phone has brought to us. Using mobile phones too much not only affects our health seriously but also causes some personal problems and limiting communication face to face. In the high-tech world, the mobile phones are equipped with all necessary functions. People can chat together for hours whenever they ha ve time. They talk together from hour to hour, from day to day. As a result, using mobile phone for a long time affects our health. Do you know how dangerous the wave from the cell phone is for our brain? The waves from cell phone are very harmful to our physical body such as our heart and brain. A recent study tells that our brain is seriously damaged when using mobile phone too much. Have you ever experienced the headache with talking on the cell phone for a long time? It is the wave from the mobile phone that causes the headache. Due to the danger of the cell phone wave to our brain, using phones too much can cause a poor memory. Besides, the wave of cell phones is very strong so it can cause heart disease if we keep cell phone near our body, especially under the pillow while sleeping. With many functions of the cell phone, the young can listen to music anytime they want. By using a headphone, people can enjoy some video, some music all time without annoying anyone. However, one effect of listening by earphones for a long time is that it damages our ear, even it can cause deaf. Moreover, the excessive use of cell phones causes teens and young adults to experience restlessness and it can make them feel difficult to fall asleep. It is an obvious fact that using cell phones too much can affect our brain, because sleep loss and damage our ears. Our life is becoming more and more convenient and the mobile phone has become an indispensable and inseparable object. People use mobile phones in every place, every time to manage their business. They talk on the cell phone when working, even when they are on the road. A lot of drivers listen to cell phone conversations while they are driving on the road. Consequently, they can cause dangerous accidents for other drivers on the road. Getting caught up in conversations on a cell phone can lead to the loss of focusing and highly distracted driving. Furthermore, it is generally observed that drivers using cell phones often forget to give proper signals disobey street signs and tend to cut lanes without warning. It is such a careless driving that results in many crashes and fatalities every day. Therefore, our government should give the law to ban drivers from using mobile phones while driving. Besides, another result of using phones too much is the expenses for cell phone cards every month. We often spend a lot of money using mobile phone. Not only the expenses for cell phone cards, sometimes using phones in a public places also causes some problems. We can see some rude people who speak loudly in public places, particularly in libraries, trains and theatres, which disturb other people a lot. For example, the camera of mobile phones sometimes disturbs a personÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. Some people use the Bluetooth and the camera in a bad purpose. In short, using mobile phone can cause some personal problem like accidents on the road, money for cell phone cards and some trouble in public places. Mobile phone has become crucial part of our life. One of the most important functions of the phone is that it helps the communication become easier and quicker. However it also causes a lot of problem in communicating. Firstly, cell phone use has effects on the direct human to human interaction. Talking on the cell phones is gradually replacing the communication face to face between people. There was a time when the purpose of a telephone was to convey the important messages and not many people owned telephones. Thus, to talk together about something, they often met directly. Today owning a cell phone is held as a necessity and anyone including children have their cell phone. Therefore, the communication face to face between people is limited. Nowadays parents can be at the work place to talk to their children, to remind them of studying at school. Friends like chatting together for hours by mobile phone so they do not have anything to tell together when meeting at school. It seems that using cell phones too much destroys the pleasure of direct interaction. Another effect in communicating by mobile phone is misunderstanding between people. Always, people send messages to ask for information or congratulate someone. And the problem is that sometimes they forget to type the punctuation marks or they misspell, which makes the receiver misunderstand. More seriously, this can destroy the relationship between them. Therefore, to avoid some problem in communicating by cell phone, people should be careful in using it. Mobile phone is really necessary for our life because of many convenient functions of it. However, sometimes mobile phone can cause us many problems. The advantages or disadvantages of using mobile phones depend on the way how we can use it in right ways or in wrong ways.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The Supreme Court has been given credit and blame for having a wide range of effects on society. The decisions that they have made on current and past issues have initiated change in American society. These changes have had both positive and negative results. The effects of their decisions have ranged from improving the status of certain ethnic groups to limiting the procedures of law enforcers and clearly defining the rights of lawbreakers. In essence, Supreme Court decisions have had a profound influence on the behaviors of citizens as well as the political structure of this nation. The decisions of justices have Ã¢â¬Å"altered behavior of political and governmental officials as well as a man walking down the streetÃ¢â¬ (Miller 4). To understand the role of the Supreme Court in the American system then one must pay attention to the social impact of court decisions. Ã¢â¬Å"The supreme court has assumed the task (of)Ã¢â¬ ¦enforcing a law known to all, of deciding what law ought to be and making any changes called forÃ¢â¬ (Knight 1). Decisions are made by the Justices from conflicting principles not because of the law, but because of an evaluation of what impact the decision will have on American society. The Supreme Court has had a greater important impact then any other government institution on society as a whole. The decisions have affected peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior as individuals and social institutions such as the family and economy (Baum 318). The decisions of the Supreme Court justices have Ã¢â¬Å"affected the social behavior of people by influencingÃ¢â¬ ¦(their) thinking and the structures in which they operateÃ¢â¬ (Baum 319). Ã¢â¬Å"Change is the primary characteristic of American SocietyÃ¢â¬ (Miller 4). Change must also exist in American law. As society progresses and changes, the Court must address injustices as a result of change and determine criteria for a particular decision (Miller 5). As stated earlier, the Supreme Court decisions have initiated both political and social change (Baum 319). The constitution was established for certain and definite purposes. However what the Founding Fathers did not account for was change (Miller 4). As a result the Supreme Court has adapted the concept of an evolving Constitution (Miller 5). It was necessary to redefine laws that were passed earlier to adjust to the changing society. Also, it was necessary as time progressed and the movement for equality grew, the Supreme Court need to reexamine the Ã¢â¬Å"narrow mindednessÃ¢â¬ of our Founding Fathers (Miller 5). Decisions were made that ensured persons regardless of gender, race or religion were all granted the rights and privileges entitled to them as United States citizens. The Supreme Court has been involved in making dramatic decisions concerning social issues. Several areas that have been affected by their opinions include: 1) civil rights, 2) religious activities, and 3) police policy and procedure (Kessel 194). Although the actual decisions had little impact on society, they would stimulate other actions for change and in turn make a difference in society (Baum 319). For example, the decision to desegregate schools would be the catalyst for the civil rights movement. The Ã¢â¬Å"SchemmpÃ¢â¬ decision as well as the Ã¢â¬Å"Roe vs. WadeÃ¢â¬ decision will fuel the use of religion as a political stance (Baum 319). To understand how influential Supreme Court decisions are it is necessary to examine what effect they have had on American society. One of the most monument decisions was the effects of Brown Vs. the Board of Education. This decision ordered the desegregation of school throughout the nation. Previous to this decision, Plessy vs. Ferguson set precedent that institutions such as schools or public facilities could be segregated based on race. The condition of this decision was that both facilities whether for Caucasians or African Americans must be equal in quality. When this condition failed to exist to be met it became necessary for these institutions become desegregated. Brown vs. The board of Education required that Ã¢â¬Å"school districts with separate school for Blacks and White students be desegregatedÃ¢â¬ (Baum 305). Most of the states in the northern and western states conformed to this decision. However in the Deep South, were slavery had been an institution, the call for desegragation was not widely accepted. In addition, the Supreme Court had allowed an Ã¢â¬Å"open-ended delayÃ¢â¬ to desegregation. This allowedÃ school districts to Ã¢â¬Å"take their time in desegregating schoolsÃ¢â¬ (Baum 318). In the South Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦desegregationÃ¢â¬ ¦(did not occur)Ã¢â¬ ¦ for a decade because school administrators resisted Supreme Court rulingÃ¢â¬ (Baum 318). Some districts took several more years and the use of congressional force to obey the ruling. The Courts helped to make desegregation possible. It also had an impact on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings toward racial discrimination. These rulings demonstrated that government support of discrimination was unconstitutional. It also declared that there Ã¢â¬Å"needed to be efforts to achieve racial equalityÃ¢â¬ (Baum 307). As stated earlier, the Supreme Court had been a contributor to social change. It would help to initiate the civil rights movement. Ã¢â¬Å"Once the civil rights movement became active, the Supreme Court took Ã¢â¬ ¦ steps to protect itÃ¢â¬ (Baum 318). Their decisions, although they did not directly protect the movementÃ¢â¬â¢s participants, helped to strengthen the cause. In fact Supreme Court decisions in support of racial equality have been viewed as a motivating factor of civil rights revolution of 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and also the improvement of the status of African Americans (Baum 318). Another influential decision of the Supreme Court judges concerned police procedures and policies. In Miranda vs. Arizona, the Supreme Court established new restrictions on search and seizure as well as required certain warnings must be read to a suspect prior to questioning by police officers or detectives (Wald 149). Under the Miranda ruling, police have to give Ã¢â¬Å"adequate and effective warning of legal rights and honor the suspects use of the rightsÃ¢â¬ (Wald 155). This is to ensure that the suspect will understand the meaning of these rights and how they apply to him. It is also to ensure that the suspect does Ã¢â¬Å"what is in his best interestÃ¢â¬ (Wald 155). In addition the presence of a lawyer during questioning ensured that the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s 5th Amendment right under the constitution is not violated. Prior knowledge of oneÃ¢â¬â¢ s self interest would allow them t act in their best interest. Once the defendant is properly warned of his rights, he will be in a position to act in accordance to his interests in remaining silent andÃ requesting a lawyer. The suspect also needed to understand that he is in an adversary system that is not working in his interest (Wald 156). It was believed that the decision from Miranda vs. Arizona would foster successful law enforcement. The Miranda rights were required to decrease the rate of coerced confessions due to police brutality. It has had limited effects. The Supreme Court decision has fueled debates over the rights of suspects (Baum 306). It is believed by some that once a person commits a crime by breaking the law they are not entitled to additional rights. In addition, Convictions have been lost because of the expansion of defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Ã¢â¬Å"They were failed to be read their Miranda rights so they were releasedÃ¢â¬ (Wald 156). However the Miranda decision has helped to impose restrictions on how much force and intimidation tactics police officials can use on suspects. In an attempt to end mistreatment of suspects by the police, the Miranda decision makes sure that the suspect has a Ã¢â¬Å"real understandingÃ¢â¬ of their rights and that they are clearly stated (Wald 163). In an attempt to end injustices toward crime suspects, several states have also gone to further limiting and restricting police practices. Police officers have somewhat abided by these court-imposed restrictions. Those who have not have subsequently been faced with charges of violating a personÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights and risk becoming a suspect themselves (Baum 306). The final Supreme Court decision that has had an impact on American society was the decisions concerning seperation of church and state. The Supreme Court of the United States has been a vigilant watchdog in preserving the separation between church and state called for by the Constitution. In 1962 the Court ruled in Engel v. Vitale on the constitutionality of public?school prayers (Gawrisch). Enthusiasim arose in 1963 following the CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision in two historic cases, Abington v. Schemmp and Murray v. Curlett. The devotional use of the Bible and all forms of prayer were banned from public schools as a contravention of the Establishment Clause. Objective study about religion and reading of the Bible for its literary and historic qualities were not prohibited (Gawrisch). These decisions had an impact on policies adopted and enforced on a school district level (Birkby 109). While some schools initially ignored the ruling, most adhered to it. Over time federal government limited religious observances in public schools (Baum 306). Ironically, this was an attempt to ensure religious freedom (Birkby 110). As time progressed the Court reiterate their rulings in different cases. As recent as 1992 & 2000, decisions have been made restricting prayer at school ceremonies and sporting events (Baum306). Some may argue that eliminating prayer in school has only further damaged the educational process of students. Other believe it has had adverse effects on the students (Baum 318). Students have lost their ideas of morals, and virtues. They are unable to realize that there are consequences for their actions whether negative or positive in nature. However as a nation of diversity it is unfair for educational institutions to allow the practice of certain religious practices and not others. Again one must look at the constitution right of freedom of religion and that one must not be forced to exposure to religious practices they do not participate in. In fact court decisions on school prayer have been cited as an important stimulus for the emergence of religious rights as a political movement (Baum 318). It is an issue that has yet to be resolved and will continue as long as America remains a nation of diverse people with distinctive views on religion. In conclusion, the Supreme Court has been a contributor to social change. It decisions have influenced the behaviors and attitudes of Americans since its creation. Although some may not agree with their opinion, they are forced to abide. It fulfills its duty as the interpreter of the law. It is in deciding body on political as well as social issues. It opinions and decisions have had rippling effects through AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. It as helped to reshape and redefine AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on important social issues. It is the final say in disputes that exist in this ever-changing society. Baum, Lawrence. American Court: Process and Policy. 5th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston 2001. Birkby, Robert H., Ã¢â¬Å"The Supreme Court and the Bible belt: Tennessee Reaction to the Ã¢â¬Å"SchemppÃ¢â¬ Decision.Ã¢â¬ The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions. Ed. Theodore L. Becker. New York: Oxford University Press.1969 106-114. Gawrisch, Wilbert. Ã¢â¬Å"The separation of Church and State as it relates to Our Christian SchoolsÃ¢â¬ . Kessel, John H., Ã¢â¬Å"Public Perceptions of the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬ . The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions. Ed. Theodore L. Becker. New York: Oxford University Press.1969 193-205. Knight, G. Ã¢â¬Å"On the Meaning of JusticeÃ¢â¬ NOMOS VI Justice 1,2 Eds. Friedman & Chapman.1963. Miller, Arthur S., Ã¢â¬Å"On the Need for Ã¢â¬Å"Impact AnalysisÃ¢â¬ of Supreme Court DecisionsÃ¢â¬ . The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions. Ed. Theodore L. Becker. New York: Oxford University Press.1969 3-6. Wald, Michael S., Ã¢â¬Å"Interrogations in New Haven: The Impact of MirandaÃ¢â¬ The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions. Ed. Theodore L. Becker. New York: Oxford University Press. 1969 149-164.
20 Cloud Storage Solutions for Small Business A small business always has a chance to grow, and for that, it needs to have easy-to-operate and manageable technologies. As such, cloud computing has become attractive to smaller organizations, since it makes it possible to meet demands more quickly and with fewer financial resources. In addition to decreasing network infrastructure spending, one of the major benefits of using the cloud is the ease of remote access to programs and services. Because all company information is available on the internet, there is no longer a need to install applications on computers and you can connect to the virtual server from anywhere, anytime. Program updates are also made automatically and the information is backed up. Cloud computing can transform the way companies conduct their business. Cloud computing is considered by many IT experts as a next-generation tool, capable of delivering cheaper, faster, portable and secure operations for large and small businesses. After all, anyone who works in the field knows that in order to deploy a new solution, the company has to go through a long purchase and deployment process to have the computing resources available, while a cloud provider provides the same resources in a much shorter time. In practice, the implementation of a new system is reduced from months to days. The comparison we will organize in different key points on each of the services with all the important data that we need to know. Among the points, we have the platforms, with which it is compatible, the free space they offer the price for that wide storage space, the limit of the files or the special features. Dropbox One of the most famous cloud storage services is also one of the most robust. The Dropbox has little room for storage in the free plan, but the user can expand this capacity. The idea of the company is to encourage people to share the service (each invitation sent, you get more space, for example). Dropbox is compatible with many systems and facilitates teamwork. The only drawbacks are the lack of tools for direct editing of documents (although the program syncs any edited files) and the inability to use an official app in Windows Phone. The prices of the plans paid are not absurd, but there are better competitors in this regard. Google Drive Googles product comes installed on almost every Androids and Chromebooks, making it an easy choice for anyone who already uses other company services. The Google Drive has considerable storage space, automatically syncs photos, has fast functions to share files and a tool for editing documents (text, spreadsheets, and presentations) and complete and intuitive. Whoever is at a disadvantage is Windows Phone and Linux users, but other systems are taken care of. Googles security system is very good and the cost-effectiveness of the paid plans are quite considerable and the most recommended service for those who need 100 MB, 1 TB or more of cloud storage. OneDrive The Microsoft OneDrive is one of the most complete and compensating products for those seeking a free solution. You get a good free amount of GBs to save documents, you have the option to sync photos, you can share several files and edit everything with Microsoft Office in its online version, which is robust but a great buster. It even comes in Windows 10 with a folder of its own so you can save documents much more easily. The security of OneDrive is enhanced, with the only disadvantage being the incompatibility with the Linux system. The prices of the paid plans are not the best, but it is an option to be considered by those who are also interested in signing the Office 365 package. Amazon Drive Yes, Amazon also thought of users who do not want to invest in storage (or want to test a cloud storage service) and ensure 5GB of upfront space for new Amazon CloudDrive 10 users. There is no option to increase the space via indication, only through the purchase of a storage space package. The web interface is nothing special. There are clients for Windows and Mac, but none for Linux. There are also Amazon CloudDrive apps for Android and iOS devices, Kindle as well as connectors for Amazon FireTV. Box The Box is one of the most reliable services in the world, being a well-balanced option in terms of space and security. Again, like some competitors, the disadvantage is the incompatibility with the Linux system, in addition to having the menus only in English (the only one free of this defect). In the free version, you can save individual files of up to 250 MB, but have 10 GB for this. The plan paid more in account also is not an absurd of expensive, but the available space is of only 100 GB without the option for annual payment. Mega The Mega 2 storage system became popular quickly (the system is about a year old) on account of its notorious owner, Kim DotCom, the same owner of the famous Megaupload share site, always involved in some scandal to raise The banner of freedom of file sharing. Mega, as well as Dropbox, allow you to send files from mobile devices through applications for Android, iPhone or Blackberry and also have sync clients for Windows. The Mega team is working on synchronization clients for Linux and Mac right now. Facilitators are always welcome, and the built-in mini-clients for Chrome and Firefox browsers are helpful and facilitate the direct storage of downloaded data from the Internet, downloads, and other files. The Mega gives the user 50GB free for storage of any types of files. The web interface of the application, as well as the interface for mobile devices, is extremely friendly and well made, with the most modern interactivity features just drag and drop your files into any folder creat ed in the system. Although space is quite generous from the beginning, it is not possible to gain more space in the system or even indicating other users. PromptFile Although PromptFile is a very simple site that does not have many features, it offers 250 GB of free storage space without upload or downloads limits. Files of any type can be sent from the computer via FTP and from a remote URL as long as they are not larger than 5 GB. You can also share files (except folders) with anyone, even if they do not have a user account, allowing you to stream music and videos without having to download them. Users report that you can not move files to folders unless you use the Cut and Paste function, so the drag-and-drop function is not supported. Also, it would not be possible to create folders by FTP. PromptFile can be used without registering an account, but larger restrictions apply to file size and storage limits. Hubic With hubiC, you get 25GB of file storage at no cost. Windows, Mac, and Linux (command line) users can install desktop software to upload files or use the web version. The mobile app can be used with Android, iOS, Windows Phone, and BlackBerry. The files and folders can be shared with anyone even if you are not a registered user hubiC. However, they must be set to be available for only 5, 10 or 30 days before the link expires. With a shared folder, visitors can download multiple files at once by downloading a single ZIP file. You can get up to 50 GB by pointing out other people. pCloud PCloud gives you 10 GB of free online storage, and through referrals from friends and other bonuses you can get up to 20 GB. A desktop client can be installed on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems. There is also a mobile app for iOS and Android devices that are very intuitive and easy to use. PCloud supports adding files from a remote URL, as well as a single file, and uploading entire folders via a browser. Mobile apps can upload photos and videos directly to your pCloud account. Files and folders can also be shared with other users who do not use the service. Shared folders can even be downloaded as a ZIP file. In addition, pCloud allows upload links to be generated for your folders, allowing anyone to upload files to your account. A unique email address is also generated, which allows you (or anyone) to send email files directly to a folder in your pCloud account. You can also backup photos from your social media accounts like Facebook, Instagram, and Picasa. ADrive The ADrive is little known but has come to prominence in recent years when offered at no cost high storage space. However, now it only allows subscription plans. With Adrive, you can transfer files via FTP, use a desktop app and the online collaboration feature, and recover old versions of files saved via history. Do not be scared by the absence of gratuity: a number of options of the paid plans are also interesting. Bitcasa Bitcasa also offers an extremely secure service with encrypted files such as Mega. It gives you 20 GB of free space to your users, but you can reach impressive amounts of space for nothing cheap prices. It is also compatible with most platforms, either desktop or mobile. You can access the Bitcasa website SpiderOak To conclude, we have a service that is not as well known here but that stands out for the high level of security and privacy. With the zero knowledge system, SpiderOak guarantees that none of your files will be accessed in any way by third parties. He eliminated the free plan and established few and not very advantageous paid plan options, so choose it only in case you really prioritize the privacy of your data. In addition, this service is incompatible with Windows Phone. Copy Until you knew Copy 5, you really thought that free cloud storage systems could not get any better. But Copy came up to surprise. The system leaves absolutely nothing to be desired for its older market companions. With about two years of life, Copy was created by Barracuda (the same manufacturer of hard drives, everything to see, not?) As a form of advertising the company to foster the slogan We stored like no one. With free 15GB initials for any new user, Copy has clients for Android, Linux, Mac and Windows and its interface is fairly minimalist on both the computer and the web. Gaining more space through nominations turns out to be more beneficial than in other systems that practice this mode. For each nominated user who signs up and installs the Copy application, you will gain 5GB of space, meaning more than any other for each indication. JustCloud The JustCloud 6 model is very similar to the others shown in this article, however, the initial space is only 15MB. It really does seem like little, but every month you stay with your active account in the system, you will gain 1GB of space. So in 1 year, you will have 12GB of space, which is sometimes not achieved through indications in other systems. Other ways of getting space are indicated on the tools website. JustCloud has standard 256-bit encryption for any type of user account, which makes the security of your files much larger than in some market systems. MediaFire The MediaFire 7 storage system was born from an American startup with the same name and eventually became a system used by around 30 million users worldwide. Recently the mobile applications were released, but the users are very well served with standard Windows and Linux clients of the application. The user initially gains 10GB of storage space in a very nice and easy-to-use interface. The file size limit for the free version of the tool is 200MB per file. The initial space can be increased in several ways: get 2GB of additional space when installing the desktop client, 2GB when installing a client for a mobile device (Android or iPhone), 1GB when connecting MediaFire to your Facebook account and another 1GB per post An advertisement of the system in its timeline. By indicating users who register in the system, their space bonus can reach the limit of 32GB. Syncplicity The storage system with a name that combines synchronization (sync) with simplicity (simplicity) is none other than the companys security and storage EMC. Only this information already gives enough credibility to be worth the user testing the system. Initially, the user gains 2GB of storage space. Syncplicity 9 has applications for mobile devices such as Android and iPhone as well as desktop clients for Windows and Mac (unfortunately there is not yet a Linux client yet, but in a technical contact you know the Linux client is in development). The web version of the system really is quite poor, however the Android version, for is quite rich in details and features. Wuala Wuala 11 is a Swiss cloud storage system from a Zurich-based company that first wanted to solve its internal storage problems. They partnered with a French company specializing in storages, the Lacie and so were born the storage system provided in several paid plans with large storage capacity and a free plan with 5GB of space initially. It has clients for android, iPhone, Mac, Windows, Linux and Solaris. Unlike other systems, it does not have a web interface for sending files online. Everything is done through the clients for the most diverse platforms. The Wuala interface for Linux is very similar to that of any file manager, simple and functional. It is also possible to gain 1GB of additional space for each friend indicated who use the system, but the additional space limit is 10GB. Cubby The company that created the LogMeIn remote access application initially created Cubby 12 as an additional feature for customers who had a business or Pro account in LogMeIn. Then the company decided to provide the storage solution separately and was quite right in this choice. The Cubby has AES 256-bit encryption and gives the user 5GB of initial space, which can be incremented up to 25GB free through the recommendation of friendly users of the system, with 1GB of bonus for each friend indicated to use the system. ICloud Apples service is exclusive to users of Apple products (its not possible to use it without linking the account with a device running iOS or Mac OS X) via the web, through the PC, just for viewing which is stored in the cloud. However, iPhone and iPad enthusiasts can fully benefit from the many iCloud features. The Apple product saves almost all of your information in the cloud. Whether it be the contacts, the calendar, the calendar, the photographs or any other documents, everything is properly secured on the servers of Apple. The problem is that all this information consumes a lot of space and you end up having to pay for more if you want to save lots of files. Conclusion Precisely one of the services most used is Dropbox, which offers only 2GB of free cloud space, at the other end is MEGA, the service of Kim DotCom that offers us up to 50GB completely free. For an average user, the best option is always the one that offers us more free space, since if we want to upload some documents and synchronize the photos of the camera we do sporadically, it is the best option. For professional use, it is certainly best to have a payment plan that can offer up to one terabyte of cloud space. These factors must depend on our choice.